Despite protests from some waste-disposal companies, state health officials have ordered the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be published.
(A) the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be
(B) that seawater at popular beaches should be measured for their levels of bacteria, with the results being
(C) the measure of levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches and the results to be
(D) seawater measured at popular beaches for levels of bacteria, with their results
(E) that the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches be measured and the results
Your post title says it all!
The subjunctive mood must be used whenever you have an order or recommendation verb. Some examples of such verbs are order, mandate, recommend, ask and demand.
To properly use the subjunctive, the sentence structure is:
[subject] [verb] that [next subject] [infinitive form of next verb, without "to"]
Fred's boss demands that Fred be on time for work.
Financial experts recommend that investors do research.
Our professor asks that we be prepared for class.
On to the question!
When you have long complex sentences, you should start by stripping away the extraneous material. So, paraphrasing the original:
...state health officials... have ordered the levels ... to be measured and that the results be published.
If we've trained ourselves well, we see the verb "ordered" and immediately think "subjunctive time!" There has to be a "that" after ordered - eliminate A, C and D.
Now we scan B and E and note that B has "should be measured". You never use "should" with an order or recommendation verb (you're already making an order or recommendation, so "should" is redundant) - eliminate B.
Only E fixes our subjunctive issues - choose E!
If we wanted to double check the structure of E:
...state health officials... have ordered that the levels ... be measured and the results published.
There should actually be a "be" before published (which means that either the question has been mistyped or the original question isn't perfect), but otherwise all good.
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