amitdgr and Bidisha are correct; A is the answer. Fortunately, the placement of "between 1876 and 1904" isn't the factor that determines which choice is correct. I say "fortunately", because even though there is no other place to put it without changing the meaning, the correct sentence is still damned awkward.
Regardless of where this phrase goes, the other choices are wrong for clearer reasons. B and C both use "have led". This verb tense is used for an action which happened in the past and continued until the present, which is definitely not the case here.
D and E start with the "There were..." construction in which the word "there" does not identify a place, and in fact doesn't carry any meaning at all. The GMAT never likes this: If a sentence starts with something such as "there were...", "there is...", "it was..." or "it is...", AND if the "there" or "it" is merely a sort of placeholder for the rest of the sentence rather than identifying a specific place or thing, the GMAT almost always wants you to pick a different choice with a direct and active grammatical structure.
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