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Developed countries around the world have ...

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Developed countries around the world have ... [#permalink] New post 03 Oct 2013, 07:11
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Developed countries around the world have pledged to reduce global carbon emissions to half their 1990 levels by 2050.
Taking into account these countries' plans for emissions reduction, countries in the developing world would need to cut
emissions by 23%. However, this goal will translate into a much greater per-capita requirement on people in the developing world. This is because their populations are still growing, increasing the energy and resources needed in coming years.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Industrial plants are one of the prime targets for emissions reductions, and most global industrial production
takes place in developed nations.
(B) On a per-capita basis, emissions from countries in the developing world are less than one-tenth those from
developed countries.
(C) A handful of developing nations committed to emissions reduction targets equal or greater than those of developed nations.
(D) In developing nations, emissions levels are more heavily dependent on the activities of a small ruling class.
(E) By 2050, many countries in the developing world are expected to have undergone drastic economic
transformation such that they will resemble more closely developed nations than developing ones.

Source: GMAT Hacks - 071613
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by avohden on 06 Oct 2013, 06:46, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Developed countries around the world have ... [#permalink] New post 03 Oct 2013, 07:17
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Official Explanation

Answer: B This is a strengthen question. It is similar, however, to an explanation, as the argument contains an
apparent paradox. Developed countries will cut emissions by 50%, developing countries by 23%, but the 23% cuts
will be more demanding on a per-capita basis. The evidence given is that developing countries will need more
resources to continue growing. Presumably, developed nations will not need their resource consumption to
grow at the same rate. Consider each choice:

(A) This choice describes one target of emissions cuts, but in developed nations. It doesn't explain why developing
nations will be hit harder. (B) This is correct. If emissions in developing countries start at so low a point, they
would need to grow very rapidly to get anywhere close to the level of developed nations. As the resource
demands in those countries grow, any cut at all--let alone 23%--in emissions would be a great burden. (C) This choice distinguishes some developing nations from other developing nations. The contrast we're concerned with is
developing vs. developed nations. (D) This may be true, but it doesn't tell us why emissions cuts would be so much
more harmful. If anything, it may mean the cuts would be less harmful, as they would disproportionately touch the
ruling class. (E) This is something that is partly assumed by the argument, but without additional information
(in the form of details regarding emissions levels, as in (B)) it doesn't strengthen the argument.
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Re: Developed countries around the world have ... [#permalink] New post 26 Dec 2014, 07:11
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Re: Developed countries around the world have ... [#permalink] New post 27 Dec 2014, 03:54
HI Avohden, I am still not clear why the answer is B. Please could you help me.

I chose the answer C.

avohden wrote:
Official Explanation

Answer: B This is a strengthen question. It is similar, however, to an explanation, as the argument contains an
apparent paradox. Developed countries will cut emissions by 50%, developing countries by 23%, but the 23% cuts
will be more demanding on a per-capita basis. The evidence given is that developing countries will need more
resources to continue growing. Presumably, developed nations will not need their resource consumption to
grow at the same rate. Consider each choice:

(A) This choice describes one target of emissions cuts, but in developed nations. It doesn't explain why developing
nations will be hit harder. (B) This is correct. If emissions in developing countries start at so low a point, they
would need to grow very rapidly to get anywhere close to the level of developed nations. As the resource
demands in those countries grow, any cut at all--let alone 23%--in emissions would be a great burden. (C) This choice distinguishes some developing nations from other developing nations. The contrast we're concerned with is
developing vs. developed nations. (D) This may be true, but it doesn't tell us why emissions cuts would be so much
more harmful. If anything, it may mean the cuts would be less harmful, as they would disproportionately touch the
ruling class. (E) This is something that is partly assumed by the argument, but without additional information
(in the form of details regarding emissions levels, as in (B)) it doesn't strengthen the argument.
1 KUDOS received
Director
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Status: 1,750 Q's attempted and counting
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Joined: 09 Jul 2013
Posts: 514
Location: United States (FL)
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GMAT 1: 600 Q45 V29
GMAT 2: 590 Q35 V35
GMAT 3: 570 Q42 V28
GMAT 4: 610 Q44 V30
GPA: 3.45
WE: Accounting (Accounting)
Followers: 22

Kudos [?]: 329 [1] , given: 630

Re: Developed countries around the world have ... [#permalink] New post 27 Dec 2014, 11:09
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Hey there shriramvelamuri – I didn’t write the question or the answer so the following is IMHO.

According to Mike McGarry at Magoosh there are 4 ways to strengthen a question.
A. Strengthen the premises: either provide direct support to one of the premises of the argument, or add new premises that independently support the conclusion
B. Strengthen the assumption: directly affirm the truth of an assumption of the argument, or provide evidence or support for an assumption.
C. Strengthen the conclusion: provide some kind of alternate support of, direct measurement of, or independent confirmation of the conclusion
D. Weaken an objection: use any of the weakening techniques on an implicit or explicit objection to the argument.

I think B is correct because it strengthens an assumption. I believe the conclusion is the following sentence: “However, this goal will translate into a much greater per-capita requirement on people in the developing world.”

Although the conclusion sentence does begin with a conclusion indicator word such as therefore, so, or thus it summarizes the conclusion of the argument. The word “however” sounds like it’s trying to confuse the reader.

So when I read the conclusion without the however I am thinking what is being assumed to make that conclusion. Please note that I think the use of “per-capita” is also trying to confuse you. You can substitute “percentage decline” instead.

While I read the question certain things come to mind in terms of assumptions. I’m just brainstorming right now.

Developed countries probably have more total emissions than developing countries. Developed countries have more infrastructure and energy requirements which are consistent with a higher standard of living.
Developed countries have a lower population growth than developing countries. Think Western Europe and Japan where their populations are actually declining.
Using these assumptions as I look at the questions I see that answer B restates my first sentence. It affirms my assumption and actually provided evidence. “Developed countries probably have more total emissions than developing countries”. Personally I can’t quantify the amount but answer B did for me.

I try and quantification of the amount of emissions output.

Assume emissions from developed countries is 1,000,000 and emissions from developing is 100,000. We know that developed countries are going to cut emissions but 50% and developing countries by 23%. But we are assuming that the population in developing countries is growing faster than developed countries. As countries develop their energy requirements and emissions is greater than its population growth.

Assume the following: Emissions 100,000 and population 100,000 at 2010. Population growth 10% and emissions growth 15% for the next 40 years. Let’s round 23% to 25%, therefore emissions will be cut to 75,000 by 2050. But assuming emissions growth, the emissions output will be approx. 202,000. So the actual emissions reduction is 63% not 23%.
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Re: Developed countries around the world have ... [#permalink] New post 27 Dec 2014, 23:19
Thanks Avohden for the explanation.

avohden wrote:
Hey there shriramvelamuri – I didn’t write the question or the answer so the following is IMHO.

According to Mike McGarry at Magoosh there are 4 ways to strengthen a question.
A. Strengthen the premises: either provide direct support to one of the premises of the argument, or add new premises that independently support the conclusion
B. Strengthen the assumption: directly affirm the truth of an assumption of the argument, or provide evidence or support for an assumption.
C. Strengthen the conclusion: provide some kind of alternate support of, direct measurement of, or independent confirmation of the conclusion
D. Weaken an objection: use any of the weakening techniques on an implicit or explicit objection to the argument.

I think B is correct because it strengthens an assumption. I believe the conclusion is the following sentence: “However, this goal will translate into a much greater per-capita requirement on people in the developing world.”

Although the conclusion sentence does begin with a conclusion indicator word such as therefore, so, or thus it summarizes the conclusion of the argument. The word “however” sounds like it’s trying to confuse the reader.

So when I read the conclusion without the however I am thinking what is being assumed to make that conclusion. Please note that I think the use of “per-capita” is also trying to confuse you. You can substitute “percentage decline” instead.

While I read the question certain things come to mind in terms of assumptions. I’m just brainstorming right now.

Developed countries probably have more total emissions than developing countries. Developed countries have more infrastructure and energy requirements which are consistent with a higher standard of living.
Developed countries have a lower population growth than developing countries. Think Western Europe and Japan where their populations are actually declining.
Using these assumptions as I look at the questions I see that answer B restates my first sentence. It affirms my assumption and actually provided evidence. “Developed countries probably have more total emissions than developing countries”. Personally I can’t quantify the amount but answer B did for me.

I try and quantification of the amount of emissions output.

Assume emissions from developed countries is 1,000,000 and emissions from developing is 100,000. We know that developed countries are going to cut emissions but 50% and developing countries by 23%. But we are assuming that the population in developing countries is growing faster than developed countries. As countries develop their energy requirements and emissions is greater than its population growth.

Assume the following: Emissions 100,000 and population 100,000 at 2010. Population growth 10% and emissions growth 15% for the next 40 years. Let’s round 23% to 25%, therefore emissions will be cut to 75,000 by 2050. But assuming emissions growth, the emissions output will be approx. 202,000. So the actual emissions reduction is 63% not 23%.
Re: Developed countries around the world have ...   [#permalink] 27 Dec 2014, 23:19
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