Man, is that a political question or what?! If I see such a question on the GMAT, I'll know that I am in the twilight zone and Gorbachov and Reagan are appearing on the 8 o'clock news.
1. C is my pick for the first question. Fire is opposite to water as truth to disinformation (lies).
A is very vague - I don't even understand what it means.
B - I think it actually contradicts the passage. The disinformation is "necessary" according to the apologists, so it seems to be working fine.
D - yeah right
E - the character of the agents is never referred to
2. I pick A. I think the first sentence of the passage reveals the author's boyscout-like views on telling the truth.
B - the author talks about "the war against the foes", not about political standing in the world. With regard to the effectiveness - if the campaign of the Soviets has to be countered, than it has resulted in some kind of damage against the Americans, so disinformation is effective.
C- I don't see how this is implied.
D - we don't know how bad it is. If countermeasures are being taken, it's probably pretty bad, but we don't really know.
E - actually disinformation campaigns serve the political interests of the Americans, because they are employed to counter the activities of "the foe"