Dr. A: The new influenza vaccine is useless at best and possibly dangerous. I would never use it on a patient.
Dr. B: But three studies published in the Journal of Medical Associates have rated that vaccine as unusually effective.
Dr. A: The studies must have been faulty because the vaccine is worthless.
In which of the following is the reasoning most similar to that of Dr. A?
(A) Three of my patients have been harmed by that vaccine during the past three weeks, so the vaccine is unsafe.
(B) Jerrold Jersey recommends this milk, and I don’t trust Jerrold Jersey, so I won’t buy this milk.
(C) Wingzz tennis balls perform best because they are far more effective than any other tennis balls.
(D) I’m buying Vim Vitamins. Doctors recommend them more often than they recommend any other vitamins, so Vim Vitamins must be good.
(E) Since University of Muldoon graduates score about 20 percent higher than average on the GMAT, Sheila Lee, a University of Muldoon graduate, will score about 20 percent higher than average when she takes the GMAT.
Stem: A is bad. B said A is good so B must be wrong because A is bad.
This is circular reasoning. You assume to be true what you are supposed to be proving.
(A) Hasty generation. An argument that bases a generalization on insufficient number of instances.
(B) B said A is good but B is untrustworthy, so A is bad. Personal attack. Depute an argument based on the source of the argument.
(C) A is good because A is good. Circular reasoning.
(D) Argument by authority. Bases the judgment of an assertion on the source of the assertion.
(E) Sweeping generalization. Apply a general rule to a specific case.
These are all different types of logical fallacies. To see other types and examples, please read this thread: viewtopic.php?t=40345
Keep on asking, and it will be given you;
keep on seeking, and you will find;
keep on knocking, and it will be opened to you.