Find all School-related info fast with the new School-Specific MBA Forum

It is currently 21 Aug 2014, 12:40

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

Due to Vs Because of

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:
Expert Post
29 KUDOS received
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1775
Followers: 1227

Kudos [?]: 3367 [29] , given: 181

Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 09 Oct 2012, 17:37
29
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
25
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

(N/A)

Question Stats:

89% (01:26) correct 11% (00:00) wrong based on 7 sessions
Image

In conversational English, we may hear or use sentences in which we present reason for something by using the expression “due to”. While in certain cases, this usage may be grammatically correct.

But in certain other scenarios, it is incorrect. In this post, I will discuss these scenarios. Through this discussion, I will also answer the following question

Q: Can ‘due to’ and ‘because of’ be used interchangeably?
A: No. ‘due to’ is used to modify nouns only. ‘Because of’ is used to modify verbs. Thus, these two expressions cannot be used interchangeably.





What is “Due To” Used for?



RULE 1: The expression ‘due to’ can only be used to modify nouns. Thus, you cannot use this expression to present reason for an action in the clause

Image

In sentence 1, use of ‘due to’ is incorrect because it is used to explain ‘why it is cold’. In other words, it is used to explain the reason behind the “verb” or “action” in the clause. This is not idiomatically correct.

Image

RULE 2: ‘Due to’ is correct if the sentence makes sense when you replace ‘due to’ with ’caused by’. If, it does not, then use of ‘due to’ is not correct

Image

Here when ‘due to’ is replaced with ’caused by’, the sentence makes complete sense. This check proves that usage of ‘due to’ is correct.

What is “Because of” used for?



Rule 3: The expression ‘because of’ is used to modify entire clauses. Thus, you can use this expression to present reason for an action in the clause.

Sentence 1 above can be corrected by replacing ‘due to’ with ‘because of’. Now ‘because of’ modifies the clause presenting the reason why it is cold in Arizona.

Image

What are correct and incorrect usages of ‘Due to’, ‘Caused by’,& ‘Because of”?



Image


The parent-teacher meeting was canceled due to heavy rains. – INCORRECT
‘Due to’ modifies the action in the preceding clause and hence is not used correctly.

The parent-teacher meeting was canceled caused by heavy rains. – INCORRECT
Note how when “due to” is replaced with “caused by”, the sentence no longer makes sense.

The parent-teacher meeting was canceled because of heavy rains. – CORRECT
‘because of’ modifies the action in preceding clause, indicating why the meeting was canceled.

The cancellation of parent-teacher meeting was due to heavy rains. – CORRECT
‘Due to’ modifies the noun – cancellation.

The cancellation of parent-teacher meeting was caused by heavy rains.- CORRECT
Note how when “due to” is replaced with “caused by”, the sentence makes complete sense.

What are the Key Take-Away Messages?



    Use ‘due to’ only to modify nouns.
    Usage of ‘due to’ is correct, if the sentence makes sense when ‘due to’ is replaced with ’caused by’.
    Use ‘because of’ to modify verbs.
    ‘Due to’ & ‘because of’ are not interchangeable.

Official Sentences (Exercises)



Given this framework, let’s solve these official questions. But before we give the detailed solution from the standpoint of “due to”, “because of”, and “because”, we want you to take a stab at these. Give us your rationale for making your selection of the correct answer. Be sure to provide a detailed analysis at least for “due to” aspect of the question.



OG12#6

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing


GMATPrep

It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.

A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other
_________________



Free Webinar: August 24, 2014 - Improve by 70 Points in 30 days: Register for this Free Webinar to learn how to define your strategy, analyze your mocks and improve by 70 points in 30 days. Click here to register.


Last edited by egmat on 27 Aug 2013, 16:03, edited 3 times in total.
Kaplan GMAT Prep Discount CodesKnewton GMAT Discount CodesVeritas Prep GMAT Discount Codes
5 KUDOS received
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 15 Jun 2010
Posts: 363
Schools: IE'14, ISB'14, Kellogg'15
WE 1: 7 Yrs in Automobile (Commercial Vehicle industry)
Followers: 6

Kudos [?]: 145 [5] , given: 50

GMAT Tests User Reviews Badge
Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 09 Oct 2012, 19:04
5
This post received
KUDOS
egmat wrote:
OG12#6

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.


Here due to is modifying the action of preceding clause- so usage of due to is incorrect here.

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing - Usage of due to & which are incorrect
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize - Usage of due to is incorrect & parallelism error
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize - parallelism error
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize - parallelism error, too wordy
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing - usage of because is correct & parallelism is maintained


Hence Correct choice is E


egmat wrote:
GMATPrep

It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.


Here caused by is correctly used and it is modifying the noun astronomical phenomena. The word likely in underlined portion suggest possibility so may be is redundant here. A number of phenomena : Here phenomena is plural subject so usage of are will be correct.

A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other - Redundancy
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other - Redundancy
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other - Incorrect usage of because of
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other- incorrect usage of where
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other- Correct choice

Hence correct choice E
_________________

Regards
SD
-----------------------------
Press Kudos if you like my post.
Debrief 610-540-580-710(Long Journey): from-600-540-580-710-finally-achieved-in-4th-attempt-142456.html


Last edited by SOURH7WK on 11 Oct 2012, 19:16, edited 1 time in total.
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 03 Jun 2012
Posts: 10
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 2

Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 10 Oct 2012, 20:42
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

Meaning -- Moisture inside the chambers increased so high that salt xxxxx and hence they are closed for cleaning and repair.

Error Analysis --

C1 - Chambers - plural sub ; were closed ( plural verb )
C2- Due to moisture exhaled by tourists (no sub ; no verb; exhaled is modifier )
C3 Which raised ( verb ) correctly modifies 'moisture' because you can't move by tourists anywhere.

C1 - perfect
C2 - due to modifying why it is closed ( action )
C3 - 'it' is referring to Chambers - wrong
Crystallizing and growing - parallel ( needed )

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing - BECAUSE OF PRONOUN ERROR incorrect
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize - Pronoun error and MEANING ISSUE - it says reparing and closing ; moisture exhaled - everything resulted in humidity increase. Also parallelism error
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize - were exhaling that means it exhaling and repair both happening at the same time.
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize - Tourist can't raise humidity- meaning error.
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing - Perfect

Note WHICH is correct in the above sentence. It correctly modifies Moisture.


Option E.
1 KUDOS received
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 09 Jan 2012
Posts: 28
Concentration: Strategy, Finance
GMAT Date: 10-17-2013
WE: Consulting (Computer Software)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 8 [1] , given: 22

Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 26 Oct 2012, 01:55
1
This post received
KUDOS
A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing


A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other - modifying stars
_________________

Thanks & Regards
Yodee



‘A good plan violently executed now is better than a
perfect plan executed next week.’

- General Georg S. Patton

Expert Post
BSchool Forum Moderator
avatar
Joined: 27 Aug 2012
Posts: 1102
Followers: 77

Kudos [?]: 469 [0], given: 102

Premium Member CAT Tests
Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 08 Dec 2012, 22:27
Expert's post
HI egmat,
Could you please come up with OA and your excellent explanation and analysis..?
_________________

UPDATED : e-GMAT SC Resources-Consolidated || ALL RC Resources-Consolidated || ALL SC Resources-Consolidated || UPDATED : AWA compilations-109 Analysis of Argument Essays || NEW !!! GMAC's IR Prep Tool

GMAT Club guide - OG 11-12-13 || Veritas Blog || Manhattan GMAT Blog


KUDOS please, if you like the post or if it helps :-)

Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 03 Aug 2012
Posts: 887
Concentration: General Management, General Management
Schools: ISB '16
GMAT 1: 630 Q47 V29
GMAT 2: 680 Q50 V32
GPA: 3.7
Followers: 12

Kudos [?]: 183 [0], given: 304

Premium Member CAT Tests
Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 16 Dec 2012, 21:11
I appreciate the article by E-gmat .

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
"Due to" only modifies NOUN, here it is action "Chambers were closed".
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
"Due to" only modifies NOUN, here it is action "Chambers were closed".
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
Although it uses progressive past tense, it would have been correct unless "would" was used as "was. "Which" is used properly referring to moisture.Presence of two actions (1). Chambers were closed "A later event" (2). "Had raised humidity" a past event due to which chambers were closed.
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
Verbing (Raising) without a "Comma" modifies a immediate noun(a concept by E-GMat only) :) Incorrect
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing
Correct Indeed !!!!



GMATPrep

It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.

A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other
Correct without any doubts !!!


Rgds.
saurabh
_________________

Rgds,
TGC!
_____________________________________________________________________
I Assisted You => KUDOS Please
_____________________________________________________________________________

Expert Post
BSchool Forum Moderator
avatar
Joined: 27 Aug 2012
Posts: 1102
Followers: 77

Kudos [?]: 469 [0], given: 102

Premium Member CAT Tests
Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 22 Dec 2012, 08:09
Expert's post
debayan222 wrote:
HI egmat,
Could you please come up with OA and your excellent explanation and analysis..?


Hi Shradhha,
Any update on this ?

OA is E for both the qs. I think.

Please share your thoughts.Appreciate your reply.
_________________

UPDATED : e-GMAT SC Resources-Consolidated || ALL RC Resources-Consolidated || ALL SC Resources-Consolidated || UPDATED : AWA compilations-109 Analysis of Argument Essays || NEW !!! GMAC's IR Prep Tool

GMAT Club guide - OG 11-12-13 || Veritas Blog || Manhattan GMAT Blog


KUDOS please, if you like the post or if it helps :-)

Director
Director
avatar
Status: Gonna rock this time!!!
Joined: 22 Jul 2012
Posts: 550
Location: India
GMAT 1: 640 Q43 V34
GMAT 2: 630 Q47 V29
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 27 [0], given: 562

GMAT Tests User
Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 16 Jan 2013, 04:43
Hi ,

Seems this can't be applied to the gmat prep question I have attached.

economy’s continued strength does act like a noun phrase , yet the correct answer has A as the answer.

Please help.

Regards,
Sach
Attachments

sc.JPG
sc.JPG [ 59.4 KiB | Viewed 16165 times ]


_________________

hope is a good thing, maybe the best of things. And no good thing ever dies.

Who says you need a 700 ?Check this out : http://gmatclub.com/forum/who-says-you-need-a-149706.html#p1201595

My GMAT Journey : end-of-my-gmat-journey-149328.html#p1197992

Expert Post
6 KUDOS received
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1775
Followers: 1227

Kudos [?]: 3367 [6] , given: 181

Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 16 Jan 2013, 07:27
6
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
Sachin9 wrote:
Hi ,

Seems this can't be applied to the gmat prep question I have attached.

economy’s continued strength does act like a noun phrase , yet the correct answer has A as the answer.

Please help.

Regards,
Sach


Hi Sachin,

The basic difference between “due to” and “because of” is that “due to” is used as “caused by” and “because of” is used to present the reason of an action.

Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

Per this sentence, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November. And what is the reason of this prediction? The reason of this prediction is economy’s continued strength. We need to present the reason for analysts’ prediction. Hence, usage of “because of” in choice A is correct.

If you go through the article well, you will see that both “due to” and “because of” are followed by noun entities. “Due to” refers only to a noun entity while “because of” presents reason.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
_________________



Free Webinar: August 24, 2014 - Improve by 70 Points in 30 days: Register for this Free Webinar to learn how to define your strategy, analyze your mocks and improve by 70 points in 30 days. Click here to register.

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Joined: 23 Mar 2011
Posts: 474
Location: India
GPA: 2.5
WE: Operations (Hospitality and Tourism)
Followers: 11

Kudos [?]: 101 [0], given: 59

GMAT Tests User
Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 09 Mar 2013, 09:48
Hi Shraddha, great initiative and excellent posts. It helps me a lot. So a big thank you to your team.

Gmatclub Grammar book :

NOTE: The phrase "because of" can also be expressed with the phrase "due to".

It is confirmed that this statement is not applicable.
_________________

"When the going gets tough, the tough gets going!"

Bring ON SOME KUDOS MATES+++



-----------------------------
Quant Notes consolidated: consolodited-quant-guides-of-forum-most-helpful-in-preps-151067.html#p1217652

My GMAT journey begins: my-gmat-journey-begins-122251.html

All about Richard Ivey: all-about-richard-ivey-148594.html#p1190518

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 21 Aug 2012
Posts: 150
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 33 [0], given: 41

Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 15 May 2013, 23:09
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Hi EGMAT,

Please give explanation for

It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.

A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other

Also, please share few examples of caused by cases... does the noun immediately need to follow "due to" or there can be distance.

please share simple as well as complex examples to through some more light on this topic.
_________________

MODULUS Concept ---> inequalities-158054.html#p1257636
HEXAGON Theory ---> hexagon-theory-tips-to-solve-any-heaxgon-question-158189.html#p1258308

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 12 Apr 2012
Posts: 1
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 19 Aug 2013, 07:50
here is another method that I use
suppose you have a sentence structure, e.g., XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX because of/due to YYYYYYYYYYYYY
now, if XXXXXXXXXXX can stand as a clause (complete sentence) on itself then because of is the correct usage; otherwise, if XXXXXXXXXXX is just a noun phrase then due to is the correct usage.
4 KUDOS received
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 10 Nov 2012
Posts: 29
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 10 [4] , given: 27

CAT Tests
Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2013, 12:53
4
This post received
KUDOS
My try:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.
A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

The way I understand it (cutting the flab...)
Chambers were closed for...(why?) BECAUSE high level of moisture had raised the humidity to a level that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

EA:
1) Chambers were closed DUE TO... (were closed clause in the non underlined section...) DUE TO is wrong... has to be replaced by BECAUSE OF...
2) due to (-> BECAUSE OF) is followed by moisture {exhausted by... modifier} NOT logical. It must be followed by the reason why the chambers were closed... because "high levels of humidity..... that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls"
3) Right choice must contain "crystallizing" In the clause "that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls" to maintain the parallelism.

POE:
1)DUE TO scan: A and B are gone
2) Because of must be followed by the reason: C is gone
3) crystallizing/crystallize: Except A and E all violate this -> D is also gone

E is the correct answer.

GMATPrep

It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.

A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other

The way I understand it (cutting the flab...)
- It seems likely
- that a number of astronomical phenomena, {such as the formation AP}, are caused by the interaction in which two stars orbit each other at close range.

EA:
A possibility has been presented.
Lets take an example:
It is likely that something is true.
It is likely that something may be true.
In the above two sentences, second is wrong. Why? Because use of "may be" with likely already being said for the same purpose is redundant.

So, 1) may be MUST get replaced by ARE

2) 'may be caused by' is supposed to and is modifying "astronomical phenomena". So "Because of" cannot be used in its pace..."because of" might come in...(in that case following phrase has to be modifies accordingly)

3) Where can only refer to a physical place (country, place, city etc.) not to a situation
So, IN WHICH must be used

POE:
1) LIKELY (non-underlined)/MAY BE: A and B are gone
2) use of "because of": C is gone
3) use of "where": A and D are gone (A twice :))

Left with E !
I am not going for seeing meaning of those answers I have already marked wrong!

Happy to be get corrected on my misunderstanding!
Intern
Intern
User avatar
Status: preparing for the GMAT
Joined: 16 Jul 2013
Posts: 39
Concentration: Technology, Entrepreneurship
GMAT Date: 10-15-2013
GPA: 3.53
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 7 [0], given: 3

Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink] New post 15 Sep 2013, 03:17
thanks for the great explanation
_________________

لا الله الا الله, محمد رسول الله


You never fail until you stop trying ,,,

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 21 Mar 2012
Posts: 13
Location: United States (NY)
GMAT 1: 680 Q49 V33
GMAT 2: 740 Q49 V41
GPA: 3.51
WE: Medicine and Health (Health Care)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 3

Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2014, 18:00
OG12#6

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing


e-GMAT experts! you guys are awesome. Thanks for such nice article. I have always been confused how to choose between "due to" and "because of", but after reading this article I am confident that I am in a better position to answer the questions related to this concept.

Now coming to my question: As explained in posts above "choice E" is the best answer. However, use of "them" in this sentence always perplexes me. I think "them" is ambiguous here as it can refer to both tourists and chambers. I know as per context of sentence only chambers make sense, however, I am not certain whether such use is permitted in GMAT.....
_________________

ACETHEGMAT

1 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 16 Jan 2013
Posts: 181
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 79 [1] , given: 54

Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2014, 20:19
1
This post received
KUDOS
piyushjj wrote:
OG12#6
e-GMAT experts! you guys are awesome. Thanks for such nice article. I have always been confused how to choose between "due to" and "because of", but after reading this article I am confident that I am in a better position to answer the questions related to this concept.

Now coming to my question: As explained in posts above "choice E" is the best answer. However, use of "them" in this sentence always perplexes me. I think "them" is ambiguous here as it can refer to both tourists and chambers. I know as per context of sentence only chambers make sense, however, I am not certain whether such use is permitted in GMAT.....

Consider the option,
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

In the above clause, moisture is the subject, and exhaled is a verb-ed modifier (not a verb). The actual verb corresponding to the subject is had raised.

'exhaled by tourists' is a verbal modifier, modifying the subject 'moisture'.

So, what had raised the humidity within the chambers? Moisture.

Subject and verb pair are perfectly agreeing with each other and also with the main clause.

The sentence can be re-written as follows (striking out the modifiers, prepositional phrases etc) just to see the subject-verb agreement and pronoun agreement.

In late 1997,the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

As you see, 'them' has a clear antecedent - 'chambers'
_________________

Read my posts...
What are modifiers ??

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 21 Mar 2012
Posts: 13
Location: United States (NY)
GMAT 1: 680 Q49 V33
GMAT 2: 740 Q49 V41
GPA: 3.51
WE: Medicine and Health (Health Care)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 3

Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2014, 20:37
sivasanjeev wrote:
piyushjj wrote:
OG12#6
e-GMAT experts! you guys are awesome. Thanks for such nice article. I have always been confused how to choose between "due to" and "because of", but after reading this article I am confident that I am in a better position to answer the questions related to this concept.

Now coming to my question: As explained in posts above "choice E" is the best answer. However, use of "them" in this sentence always perplexes me. I think "them" is ambiguous here as it can refer to both tourists and chambers. I know as per context of sentence only chambers make sense, however, I am not certain whether such use is permitted in GMAT.....

Consider the option,
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

In the above clause, moisture is the subject, and exhaled is a verb-ed modifier (not a verb). The actual verb corresponding to the subject is had raised.

'exhaled by tourists' is a verbal modifier, modifying the subject 'moisture'.

So, what had raised the humidity within the chambers? Moisture.

Subject and verb pair are perfectly agreeing with each other and also with the main clause.

The sentence can be re-written as follows (striking out the modifiers, prepositional phrases etc) just to see the subject-verb agreement and pronoun agreement.

In late 1997,the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

As you see, 'them' has a clear antecedent - 'chambers'


Hey SivaSandeep, thanks for nice and detailed explanation. So, if I am understanding it correctly, a pronoun - in main clause - can't refer to a noun subject in a modifier...
_________________

ACETHEGMAT

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 16 Jan 2013
Posts: 181
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 79 [0], given: 54

Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2014, 20:56
piyushjj wrote:
sivasanjeev wrote:
piyushjj wrote:
OG12#6
e-GMAT experts! you guys are awesome. Thanks for such nice article. I have always been confused how to choose between "due to" and "because of", but after reading this article I am confident that I am in a better position to answer the questions related to this concept.

Now coming to my question: As explained in posts above "choice E" is the best answer. However, use of "them" in this sentence always perplexes me. I think "them" is ambiguous here as it can refer to both tourists and chambers. I know as per context of sentence only chambers make sense, however, I am not certain whether such use is permitted in GMAT.....

Consider the option,
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

In the above clause, moisture is the subject, and exhaled is a verb-ed modifier (not a verb). The actual verb corresponding to the subject is had raised.

'exhaled by tourists' is a verbal modifier, modifying the subject 'moisture'.

So, what had raised the humidity within the chambers? Moisture.

Subject and verb pair are perfectly agreeing with each other and also with the main clause.

The sentence can be re-written as follows (striking out the modifiers, prepositional phrases etc) just to see the subject-verb agreement and pronoun agreement.

In late 1997,the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

As you see, 'them' has a clear antecedent - 'chambers'


Hey SivaSandeep, thanks for nice and detailed explanation. So, if I am understanding it correctly, a pronoun - in main clause - can't refer to a noun subject in a modifier...

A pronoun in the main clause having its antecedent (the subject/noun) in a modifier may not be possible. (but other way round can be possible)

More notes on this:

A modifier can contain a subject - but that will be different from the subject of the main independent clause.

For ex: The pen that is red, belongs to me
Subject of main clause + adjectival clause + main verb + object

Consider this ex.

Its surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life

The italicized part is an absolute phrase modifying (the entire phrase is modifying) Europa. Its is the possessive pronoun referring to Europa. So, we do have a pronoun in the modifier, which refers to a noun/subject in the main clause.
_________________

Read my posts...
What are modifiers ??


Last edited by sivasanjeev on 06 Jan 2014, 01:12, edited 1 time in total.
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 21 Mar 2012
Posts: 13
Location: United States (NY)
GMAT 1: 680 Q49 V33
GMAT 2: 740 Q49 V41
GPA: 3.51
WE: Medicine and Health (Health Care)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 3

Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2014, 21:04
Hey SivaSandeep, thanks for nice and detailed explanation. So, if I am understanding it correctly, a pronoun - in main clause - can't refer to a noun subject in a modifier...[/quote]

A modifier will not contain a subject.[/quote]

Yeah, that's true. Thanks for clarifying. But Can a pronoun - in main clause - refer to a any noun in a modifier? It will be of great help if you can site one or two examples..
_________________

ACETHEGMAT

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 16 Jan 2013
Posts: 181
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 79 [0], given: 54

Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink] New post 06 Jan 2014, 01:09
piyushjj wrote:
Hey SivaSandeep, thanks for nice and detailed explanation. So, if I am understanding it correctly, a pronoun - in main clause - can't refer to a noun subject in a modifier...

sivasanjeev wrote:
A modifier will not contain a subject.


piyushjj wrote:
Yeah, that's true. Thanks for clarifying. But Can a pronoun - in main clause - refer to a any noun in a modifier? It will be of great help if you can site one or two examples..


Hey,
small mistake from my end. A modifier can contain a subject - but that will be different from the subject of the main independent clause.

For ex: The pen that is red, belongs to me
Subject of main clause + adjectival clause + main verb + object

corrected the same in my explanation above.

Consider this ex.

Its surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life

The italicized part is an absolute phrase modifying (the entire phrase is modifying) Europa. Its is the possessive pronoun referring to Europa. So, we do have a pronoun in the modifier, which refers to a noun/subject in the main clause.

The other way round, a pronoun in the main clause having its antecedent (the subject/noun) in a modifier may not be possible.
_________________

Read my posts...
What are modifiers ??

Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of"   [#permalink] 06 Jan 2014, 01:09
    Similar topics Author Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
Experts publish their posts in the topic Because of vs due to Gnpth 0 13 Aug 2014, 08:37
Due To & because of sanjeebpanda 1 03 Jul 2013, 13:51
2 Experts publish their posts in the topic Because vs Since vs Due to. z3nith 9 25 Mar 2013, 05:34
due to vs because tt11234 6 21 Aug 2010, 08:37
GMAT Prep - SC - Because vs Due to maheshkrishna 2 20 Jun 2008, 09:06
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Due to Vs Because of

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

Go to page    1   2    Next  [ 24 posts ] 



GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Privacy Policy| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.