During the early years of European settlement on a continent : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# During the early years of European settlement on a continent

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During the early years of European settlement on a continent [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 05:48
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During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: During the early years of European [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 06:22
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During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

1.
1st clause- modifier that modifies the noun
2nd clause (Native Americans)- Noun

These two are rightly placed. Based on this we can eliminate D & E.

2. Looking at the end of underlined sentence we can notice
a. rescue of
b. to rescue

to rescue is the correct idiom also if you dont know the correct idiom, "in the rescue of" sounds really awkward.
This leave us with C.

Hope this helps.
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Re: During the early years of European [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 06:30
yashii9 wrote:
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

1.
1st clause- modifier that modifies the noun
2nd clause (Native Americans)- Noun

These two are rightly placed. Based on this we can eliminate D & E.

2. Looking at the end of underlined sentence we can notice
a. rescue of
b. to rescue

to rescue is the correct idiom also if you dont know the correct idiom, "in the rescue of" sounds really awkward.
This leave us with C.

Hope this helps.

that was an ideed great explanation.
i wanted to clarify 2 things here

1. did u eliminate A on the grounds of correct usuage of rescue of and rescue to?
correct me, i may be wrong, but rescuing of is not a wrong idiom.

2. does intimately knowing and intimate knowledge had any role to play in deciding the choice?
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Re: During the early years of European [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 07:40
After the customary POE of dropping A, B and D based on wrong use of idiom, C and E remain. Between them, C is superior simply because the modified noun is placed immediately after the initial modifier in C, while the modified noun appears after an additional modifier in E, thus rendering modification uncrisp
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Re: During the early years of European [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 08:39
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1. did u eliminate A on the grounds of correct usage of rescue of and rescue to?
correct me, i may be wrong, but rescuing of is not a wrong idiom.

http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/rescue -this should help.

As said by many -any gmat sentence will have more than one error to help us eliminate the answer choice.

2. does intimately knowing and intimate knowledge had any role to play in deciding the choice?

Yes indeed. But if you manage to eliminate answer choices based on "Rescue to" then your next selection becomes easier between c and E

However, if you are stuck at A - closely looking at the 3rd clause " intimately knowing" - we have an adverb which is modifying an gerund. This is incorrect usage.

Adverb can only modify another adverb,Main verb or adjective.
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Re: During the early years of European [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 09:06
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.

After removing the fluff, we can eliminate D and E.
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of : the opening sentence is in past tense.
Between B and C, B is wordy and C conveys the correct meaning in a clear and concise way. Hence C.

(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of : this enabled. What does this refer to "knowing" or "the ecology and the land"

(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
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Re: During the early years of European [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 09:23
maybeam wrote:
yashii9 wrote:
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

1.
1st clause- modifier that modifies the noun
2nd clause (Native Americans)- Noun

These two are rightly placed. Based on this we can eliminate D & E.

2. Looking at the end of underlined sentence we can notice
a. rescue of
b. to rescue

to rescue is the correct idiom also if you dont know the correct idiom, "in the rescue of" sounds really awkward.
This leave us with C.

Hope this helps.

that was an ideed great explanation.
i wanted to clarify 2 things here

1. did u eliminate A on the grounds of correct usuage of rescue of and rescue to?
correct me, i may be wrong, but rescuing of is not a wrong idiom.

2. does intimately knowing and intimate knowledge had any role to play in deciding the choice?

Something very general,
When we use idioms separately and when we use them in sentence : we should be careful and sensible about the intention of the author so we have to be careful about the meaning as well.
Now the GMAT is also testing the meaning and you can very well expect that out of 5 ACs two will have appropriate grammatical structure but still one is the buck .
Be careful that even if the small sections of the sentence is looking correct but the meaning is not what is expected then it is probably not the right AC.
Do a 3/2 separation start from the 3 common starter ACs and find the flaw in (A) then proceed , after you are not able to find the right AC in those 3 , move on to the rest 2, then once you have chosen the right answer , fix it with the main sentence and read it, try to figure out as it is contending the next most tempting option.Meanwhile,POE will help you to eliminate atleast 2 ACs.
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14 Jul 2012, 23:02
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During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

in D and E modifier (M)------M1,M2, SUBJECT +VERB+ EXTENSION IS NOT DESIREABLE ONE Unles there is no relation between M1 AND M2, SUBJECT++++++++++++

SO out D and E.

B . sentence construction is not paralell in subject matter. the sentence should have been stood as separately, though that would be wordy, clumsy, and confusing. this could be ------Native Americans ,knowing intimately the ecology of the land, helped to rescue. this refers to entire preceeding clause but i have never seen such construction as this one.

A. Initial modifier impels to deal with the active subject rather than passive one i think. so wordy and bad construction should be avoided if possible

c........officially correct so it is correct. but i am showing you some arguments to support this option. modifier with construction modifies the entire clause not a specific one in the sentence.-----"how native americans helped to rescue many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardshi" is clearly described by the modifier begins with "WITH" GOT IT ?
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Re: During the early years of European [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 23:28
one strategy that i have read an try to follow is to try and read the sentence without the part between two (,)'s. if it makes sense, then it generally makes it to the answer choice options.

so try and read options A, B and C without the part involving the intimate knowledge.

P.S. use ths trick only if the stimulus also has a formation involving two (,)'s.
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Re: During the early years of European [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2012, 12:38
Could anyone let me know a reason apart from awkward construction to eliminate A.

I am stuck here with A and C.
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Re: During the early years of European [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2012, 21:39
It is the wrong idiom that is even more important than the awkwardness( awkwardness is after all a matter of opinion) of the clause. - were a help in the rescuing of - is demonstrably a blatant idiomatic error. It should be the straight -helped to rescue-

That is why A is off the hook
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Re: During the early years of European   [#permalink] 15 Jul 2012, 21:39
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