During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in

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11 Nov 2010, 08:14
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During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian
revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming
techniques and crops, and
the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new
farming techniques and crops, and
B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new
farming techniques and crops, and
C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of
new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming
techniques and crops, and of
E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new
farming techniques and crops, and of
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: During the eighteenth century [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2010, 08:51
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Although the passage looks like a jumble of endless apposite, still the revolution in essence involves two things only: 1. the large-scale introduction (of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops) and 2. The substitution (of commercial blah.) The trick is to temporally ignore the prepositional phrases and converge on the arms of the list. In this symmetrical structure, the two factors i.e. The introduction and the substitution should be parallelly placed.

A.C and E can be instantly dropped, because they each are fragments without working verbs.

Between B and D, D missies parallelism by unnecessarily adding a preposition - of - to the second arm of the list – the substitution -, while dropping it for the first arm, - the introduction

Of course, the multiple use of the conjunction – and - is appropriately done in both the contenders.

B is the choice
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Re: During the eighteenth century [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2010, 08:57
This Q is testing parallelism in a very rough way.

(A) does not have main verb (should be "changes ..... involved")
(B) correct parallelism, very complicated though
(C) does not have main verb (should be "changes ..... involved")
(D) lack of comma introduces ambiguity: "revolution involved"
(E) does not have main verb (should be "changes ..... involved")
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Re: During the eighteenth century [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2010, 10:21
+1 for daagh.
Nice explanation.
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Re: During the eighteenth century [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2010, 05:03
B employs correct parallelism.
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Re: During the eighteenth century [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2010, 22:57
raghavs wrote:
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian
revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming
techniques and crops, and
the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new
farming techniques and crops, and
B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new
farming techniques and crops, and
C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of
new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming
techniques and crops, and of
E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new
farming techniques and crops, and of

Here A states revolution, involving which makes the sentence very awkward...

B is correct in saying ...the large-scale introduction of A and of B... ,and C- here basically there is hierarchy of conjunctions.... [A and B] and c... it is maintained perfectly...

In C use of 'which' is redundant...

In D 'introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of' distorts the meaning...

In E usage of 'of' in climax changes the meaning of sentence.. it suggests that 'large-scale introduction.... of A and B, and of C' ie also large scale introduction of 'substitution of commercial for subsistence farming' ... which is so incorrect...

Definitely B is perfect...
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Re: During the eighteenth century [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2010, 22:35
every thing other than B is a fragment.
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13 Jan 2013, 06:52
why is use of 'which' is redundant in the option c.
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13 Aug 2013, 20:05
Any one care to take a look at this problem again?

My doubt is between B and D

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields,new farming techniques and crops, and of

IMHO, D should be correct because in B, we introduce "and" between a point 1 and 2 in a 3-point list. The way I read this is :
revolution involved
a) ...introduction of enclosed fields
b)..new farming techniques,
c)...the substitution of commercial....

the issue with D on the other hand is this unnecessary preposition "of" at the end of the third clause.
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13 Aug 2013, 20:49
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MBAjunkie16 wrote:
Any one care to take a look at this problem again?

My doubt is between B and D

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields,new farming techniques and crops, and of

IMHO, D should be correct because in B, we introduce "and" between a point 1 and 2 in a 3-point list. The way I read this is :
revolution involved
a) ...introduction of enclosed fields
b)..new farming techniques,
c)...the substitution of commercial....

the issue with D on the other hand is this unnecessary preposition "of" at the end of the third clause.

as you pointed out the presence of OF breaks the parallelism and hence is wrong.

option B is correct.

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involved X , and Y.

X = {the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new (farming techniques and crops)}
[b]Y
= {the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.}

[/b]STRIKED OUT PART is modifier.
PARALLELISM IS BETWEEN X AND Y

IN X==> FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS ==>THEY ARE PARALLEL///////AND...INTRODUCTION OF A AND B are parallel.
where A=ENCLOSED FIELDS
B=FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS..

so overall we have 3 parallel construction as we have 3 PARALLELISM MARKER i.e AND

HOPE IT HELPS
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15 Aug 2013, 12:22
blueseas wrote:
MBAjunkie16 wrote:
Any one care to take a look at this problem again?

My doubt is between B and D

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields,new farming techniques and crops, and of

IMHO, D should be correct because in B, we introduce "and" between a point 1 and 2 in a 3-point list. The way I read this is :
revolution involved
a) ...introduction of enclosed fields
b)..new farming techniques,
c)...the substitution of commercial....

the issue with D on the other hand is this unnecessary preposition "of" at the end of the third clause.

as you pointed out the presence of OF breaks the parallelism and hence is wrong.

option B is correct.

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involved X , and Y.

X = {the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new (farming techniques and crops)}
[b]Y
= {the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.}

[/b]STRIKED OUT PART is modifier.
PARALLELISM IS BETWEEN X AND Y

IN X==> FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS ==>THEY ARE PARALLEL///////AND...INTRODUCTION OF A AND B are parallel.
where A=ENCLOSED FIELDS
B=FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS..

so overall we have 3 parallel construction as we have 3 PARALLELISM MARKER i.e AND

HOPE IT HELPS

It did! Thanks so much - if I understand correctly then, the large scale introduction here refers to enclosed fields and the farming techniques = X. Great! that's really helpful.
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08 Oct 2014, 05:31
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21 Feb 2016, 20:16
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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23 Sep 2016, 04:36
I got B..but was still not sure...

Now i am condident y "D" is wrong...
Thanks....

blueseas wrote:
MBAjunkie16 wrote:
Any one care to take a look at this problem again?

My doubt is between B and D

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields,new farming techniques and crops, and of

IMHO, D should be correct because in B, we introduce "and" between a point 1 and 2 in a 3-point list. The way I read this is :
revolution involved
a) ...introduction of enclosed fields
b)..new farming techniques,
c)...the substitution of commercial....

the issue with D on the other hand is this unnecessary preposition "of" at the end of the third clause.

as you pointed out the presence of OF breaks the parallelism and hence is wrong.

option B is correct.

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involved X , and Y.

X = {the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new (farming techniques and crops)}
[b]Y
= {the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.}

[/b]STRIKED OUT PART is modifier.
PARALLELISM IS BETWEEN X AND Y

IN X==> FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS ==>THEY ARE PARALLEL///////AND...INTRODUCTION OF A AND B are parallel.
where A=ENCLOSED FIELDS
B=FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS..

so overall we have 3 parallel construction as we have 3 PARALLELISM MARKER i.e AND

HOPE IT HELPS
Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in   [#permalink] 23 Sep 2016, 04:36
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