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# During the past decade, the labor market in France has not

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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink]  07 Dec 2006, 02:57
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Last edited by karlfurt on 07 Dec 2006, 05:53, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink]  27 Jun 2008, 12:55
I vote E. Adding the semi colon does not change the context and meaning, it makes the statement more manageable and concise. B is too long and does not seem to flow very well.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink]  27 Jun 2008, 18:15
OA is E
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink]  09 Nov 2009, 03:48
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

A)principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

B)principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

C)principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

D)principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

E)principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

It is E

"Restrict" and "has been" functioning is not parallel in B. Also, we need a semicolon to avoid run-on
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink]  09 Nov 2009, 10:23
zaarathelab wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

A)principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

B)principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

C)principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

D)principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

E)principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

It is E

"Restrict" and "has been" functioning is not parallel in B. Also, we need a semicolon to avoid run-on

I think there is another point to note: "government regulations " doest not restrict "hiring and firing" but promulgation of it doest restrict "hiring anf firing" so E is correct as E is using "restricting"
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink]  26 Sep 2010, 11:22
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles,but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink]  26 Sep 2010, 11:38
IMO E

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - modifier error
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing - Wordy and awkward
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled - where is there?
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?
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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink]  26 Sep 2010, 11:57
rafi wrote:
IMO E

b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?

Is it correct to use "its" in independent clause introduced by semicolon (;)?
It refers to subject of previous clause.
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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink]  26 Sep 2010, 12:07
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Orange08 wrote:

Is it correct to use "its" in independent clause introduced by semicolon (;)?
It refers to subject of previous clause.

I am quite certain that it is. I'll explain why with examples from MGMAT SC:
Wrong: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; doing everything together.
The second part can not stand on its own so this is not a right use of the semicolon.
Right: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; they do everything together.
This is one way to correct the sentence above. Each part can stand on his own.
The use of they here is very similar to the use of its in your question.

Hope it helps..
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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink]  29 Sep 2010, 06:53
rafi wrote:
IMO E

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - modifier error
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing - Wordy and awkward
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled - where is there?
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?

Hi,
In choice E

;instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Is this part after ; will be called independent even if it is using Its as a pronoun which we can't say to what it is referring to.

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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink]  29 Sep 2010, 07:00
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utin wrote:
rafi wrote:
IMO E

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - modifier error
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing - Wordy and awkward
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled - where is there?
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?

Hi,
In choice E

;instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Is this part after ; will be called independent even if it is using Its as a pronoun which we can't say to what it is referring to.

the part after ; functions as a clause with a subject and a verb even if that clause has a pronoun it is grammatically right usage.
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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink]  01 Oct 2010, 06:32
I see that people have rejected option [B] as wordy but I think in terms of parallelism no other option can beat B.

"has not been operating" parallel portions "has been functioning"

I think parallelism should take precedence over wordiness. Any comments.
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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink]  11 Oct 2010, 11:41
Expert's post
@ Arundas, IMO, B is to be rejected not because it is wordy, but because it has a fatal, punctuation error. We can not separate two independent but related clauses with just a comma. Either a semicolon with a non-capitalized first word has to be in place or a period with a new sentence has to be created.
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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink]  12 Oct 2010, 02:32
rafi wrote:
IMO E

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - modifier error
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing - Wordy and awkward
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled - where is there?
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?

I think the answer is B and not E.
E is incorrect because: The statement after the semicolon should be an Independent sentence. However in E, the statement after the semicolon begins with 'Instead' which is a connecting word making it a Subordinator and since there is no Main clause to support the Subordinator the second part becomes a Fragment( not a complete sentence ).

B maintains paralellism and though wordy is unambigious and hence correct.
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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink]  12 Oct 2010, 23:15
Expert's post
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

Between Choices B and E

b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy

e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers –

IMO, -instead - is not a subordinate conjunction. It is an adverbial conjunction that is used to bring out the transition of something from the original idea, just as a co-ordinate conjunction – but- would do. In comparison, words such as - although, while and even as - are subordinate conjunctions, still contrasting the two sides of sentence.

Secondly a fragment is in effect a collection or a jumble of words, essentially without a verb. But the second part of the sentence has a rock solid passive voice verb- has been stifled.-

But the biggest problem in B is the ungrammatical joining of two independent clauses by a mere comma, a serious style error

So E
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink]  22 Oct 2010, 09:39
(A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers --- but and instead are redundant
(B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers -- correct
(C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing –- “being” statements are generally avoided in GMAT unless the non underlines part indicates that the sentence is in passive voice.
(D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled -- “being” statements are generally avoided in GMAT unless the non underlines part indicates that the sentence is in passive voice.
(E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers --- “instead” is placed after semicolon. "Instead" seems unnecessary after semicolon.

So my Option is B.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink]  22 Oct 2010, 11:03
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I vaguely remember reading somewhere something like:
1). "Instead is used for a replacement", eg. "I'd ask my sister's friend, instead of my friend's sister, out for a date".
2). "Rather is used for a change of action/plan", eg. "I'd rather date my girlfriend than do my homework".

If indeed this be true, arent all of the options shady? Or have I got it all wrong?

PS: Please excuse the examples if they sound true-ish, they have helped me get the rule
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink]  22 Oct 2010, 15:31
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First, I thought there is nothing wrong with B, but then I realized B is a run-on sentence. Here, instead is not the right conjugation to connect two full independent sentences, but "but" is. E is my choice.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink]  22 Oct 2010, 16:44
(A) "But" is a coordinating conjuction. After "but", another independent clause should exist. However, subject is missing. Sentence structure error.
(B) Run on sentence. Sentence structure and style error.
(C) "being"
(D) Many errors. "there" pronoun error; Run on sentence error; Passive voice; "Being"
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink]  22 Oct 2010, 17:39
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B- Changes meaning.

E- The available best option
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink]  22 Oct 2010, 19:03
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i believe semicolon wins over comma in gmat. so my hunch is E. I like "being" which eliminate D and C. B has ambiguous "it".
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