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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not

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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2006, 02:57
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Last edited by karlfurt on 07 Dec 2006, 05:53, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2010, 20:55
E.

B was tempting, but E seemed to have no grammatical error.

I believe that 'instead' can not be used as a coordinating conjunction(and, but, so...) or subordinator(although, because, since...).
It works more like therefore.

I didn't know use of semicolon voids parallelism. Glad to learn it.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2010, 21:14
B is a run-on sentence. Insert "but" before "instead" then the sentence will be complete.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 23 Oct 2010, 09:38
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This is a tough question, so let's break down the semicolon/comma issue a bit:

It would be far too general to say that "The GMAT prefers commas" or "The GMAT prefers semicolons." The reality is the GMAT prefers whichever one is more accurate. If the clause that precedes the semicolon/comma and the clause that follows the semicolon/comma are both independent (i.e. they are complete sentence on their own) you must connect them with either:

-A semicolon
-A comma AND a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

Notice how the GMAT complicates this for us: In some of the answers above, the second half of the sentence is an independent clause, and in others it is not. This is why it's critical to read through every single answer choice closely when you have a semicolon/comma split.

Notice how choice E above is two independent clauses correctly connected by a semicolon. You could replace the semicolon with a period and then capitalize the word "Instead" and you'd be good to go with two separate sentences.

In choice B, you can really also replace the comma with a period and capitalize the word "Instead" as the start of the sentence. What this tells you is that you need to replace that comma with a semicolon.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2010, 01:08
E over B, because E has the ; and B has "functioning in a stifled manner" which is wordy and sounds odd.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2010, 01:25
If the question had been (assuming for a moment for purposes of the hypo that there is only one such principle):

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to THE free market principle, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

Then E (I have removed the 's' in principles below for the hypo):

E)principle; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Then "its" functioning in option E - "its" would be ambiguous, right?

Can some one please confirm, whether in the question in its present form "its" is ok to use in E because its can only logically refer to the market and not to the free market "principles" (in plural)?

Thanks.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2010, 04:08
vaibhavtripathi wrote:
I vaguely remember reading somewhere something like:
1). "Instead is used for a replacement", eg. "I'd ask my sister's friend, instead of my friend's sister, out for a date".
2). "Rather is used for a change of action/plan", eg. "I'd rather date my girlfriend than do my homework".

If indeed this be true, arent all of the options shady? Or have I got it all wrong?

PS: Please excuse the examples if they sound true-ish, they have helped me get the rule :)


I admit that I got the concept wrong.
Not "Instead" but "Instead of" is used for replacement. "Instead" is used as an adverb for a clause and must always be used either in the beginning or at the end.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2010, 23:05
I think that "instead it..." would be wrong in B. If not for the wrong modifying phrase, B would've been the pick of the draw.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 27 Oct 2010, 10:37
B, two sentences separate by a comma - run on sentence
E is the best choice
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 14 Dec 2010, 22:39
BKimball wrote:
This is a tough question, so let's break down the semicolon/comma issue a bit:

It would be far too general to say that "The GMAT prefers commas" or "The GMAT prefers semicolons." The reality is the GMAT prefers whichever one is more accurate. If the clause that precedes the semicolon/comma and the clause that follows the semicolon/comma are both independent (i.e. they are complete sentence on their own) you must connect them with either:

-A semicolon
-A comma AND a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

Notice how the GMAT complicates this for us: In some of the answers above, the second half of the sentence is an independent clause, and in others it is not. This is why it's critical to read through every single answer choice closely when you have a semicolon/comma split.

Notice how choice E above is two independent clauses correctly connected by a semicolon. You could replace the semicolon with a period and then capitalize the word "Instead" and you'd be good to go with two separate sentences.

In choice B, you can really also replace the comma with a period and capitalize the word "Instead" as the start of the sentence. What this tells you is that you need to replace that comma with a semicolon.


Brett earlier you have mentioned that we can connect with either comma or semi colon and in the the above sentence you are saying you need to replace comma with semicolon. It is still confusing for me.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 01 Jan 2011, 03:57
(B)

A)principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B)principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C)principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D)principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled passive & not parallel
E)principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers not parallel
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 21 Mar 2011, 09:27
Between B and E , B has been rejected because it is a run-on sentence . what is running on in B ? if there are two independent clauses cant they be connected by 'instead' as a conjunction ?

in E , the semicolon marks the beginning of an independent clause . can the independent clause begin with 'instead' ?
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 22 Mar 2011, 00:12
victorxman182 wrote:
Can somebody explain what is a run-on sentence?

Have a look @ http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/run-on-sentences.aspx
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 24 Jan 2012, 20:10
I answered B, however it is clear that "Instead" used in B is not a conjunction. Answer E clearly uses semicolon correctly by connecting two different but related independent clauses. Also, its is clearly referred back to labor market.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 02 May 2012, 00:39
IMO it'll be (E), because semicolon has been used properly between two independent sentences. B clearly has run-on issue.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2012, 00:46
aaron22197 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

(A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
(B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
(C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
(D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
(E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers


i pick E. A is out because there is a fragment. 2 ICs cant be adjoined by a comma. so B is out. the meaning of C is convoluted. wording of D is awkward.
so E is the answer. correct me if i am wrong
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 07 Jun 2012, 22:11
Should we not consider parallelism for tenses
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

in e--- principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
This is not parallel with has not been operating
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 05 Jul 2012, 22:57
Verbal Instructors, can you please give us clear view between B and E; I see a lot of debate, but not a satisfactory reasoning.
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 08 Oct 2012, 07:13
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but
instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

• principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and
firing of workers
• principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that
restrict the hiring and firing of workers
• principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict
worker hiring and firing
• principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning
being stifled
• principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and
firing of workers
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France [#permalink] New post 08 Oct 2012, 07:41
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Expert's post
aditi1903 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but
instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

• principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and
firing of workers
• principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that
restrict the hiring and firing of workers
• principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict
worker hiring and firing
• principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning
being stifled
• principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and
firing of workers


Again a cool question!
MGMAT Rocks!
Here we go
A is definitely the most awkward sentence I could ever imagine. One could definitely get rid of this without much though. It has bad parallelism. Dependent clause after ", but" and a lot of other things horribly wrong with it.
B initially looks okay but its a run on sentence. That cannot be tolerated in the GMAT.
C rather indicates a preference. So its usage here is wrong. Also, being as a modifier is never true on the gmat. (being when used as something other than a modifier makes a lot of sense sometimes though)
D Similar problems with being. Also voice parallelism is haywire in the clause after ";"

E. Correct answer choice

Though it is not tested here, but the correct option uses this phrase "regulations restricting"
I ll post a very interesting finding from an OG question!

Q133 Last week local shrimpers held a news conference to take some credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp's ridley turtle, saying that their compliance with laws requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect adult sea turtles.

A. requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect
B. requiring turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting
C. that require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets protect
D. to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets are protecting
E. to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting

Concept tested: SV agreement, Meaning.
Difficulty level: High
Illustration: This question tests a very important aspect of meaning. First, we know that the main verb in the underlined portion “protect” is wrong as the main subject “compliance is singular. (Note that protect is not being used as a command subjunctive in A. “be” is used as the command subjunctive). According to this logic, A and C are wrong. Now among B, D and E, “to require” indicates purpose of the law which is not the intended meaning (please refer to the tip below). So, D and E are incorrect. B is the correct answer. Tip: “Laws to require” indicates purpose of the law, but “laws requiring indicates contents of the law. While this might sound very obvious to natives, but non natives might have to struggle to get this clearly. Consider the following examples.
1. Arms act is passed to discourage random public shootings. Correct
2. Arms act is passed to levy heavy fines on people who carry unlicensed firearm. Wrong.
2 is wrong because the arms act is not issued to levy fines. It is issued to prevent something by levying fines. So the correct option is B.

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France [#permalink] New post 08 Oct 2012, 09:09
My two cents here :

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but
instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.
• principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and
firing of workers
• principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that
restrict the hiring and firing of workers
• principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict
worker hiring and firing
• principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning
being stifled
• principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and
firing of workers

but instead used together => Eliminate A. Comma splice or run on sentence, a comma cant be used to connect to two IC => Eliminate B. Rather is used to indicate preference , we are trying to establish contrast here => Eliminate C. D has a modifier error , its functioning blah blah => Eliminated. E wins.
Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France   [#permalink] 08 Oct 2012, 09:09
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