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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not

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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2006, 02:57
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Last edited by karlfurt on 07 Dec 2006, 05:53, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink] New post 11 Oct 2010, 11:41
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@ Arundas, IMO, B is to be rejected not because it is wordy, but because it has a fatal, punctuation error. We can not separate two independent but related clauses with just a comma. Either a semicolon with a non-capitalized first word has to be in place or a period with a new sentence has to be created.
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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink] New post 12 Oct 2010, 02:32
rafi wrote:
IMO E

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - modifier error
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing - Wordy and awkward
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled - where is there?
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?


I think the answer is B and not E.
E is incorrect because: The statement after the semicolon should be an Independent sentence. However in E, the statement after the semicolon begins with 'Instead' which is a connecting word making it a Subordinator and since there is no Main clause to support the Subordinator the second part becomes a Fragment( not a complete sentence ).

B maintains paralellism and though wordy is unambigious and hence correct.
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Re: Labor market in France [#permalink] New post 12 Oct 2010, 23:15
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

Between Choices B and E


b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy

e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers –

IMO, -instead - is not a subordinate conjunction. It is an adverbial conjunction that is used to bring out the transition of something from the original idea, just as a co-ordinate conjunction – but- would do. In comparison, words such as - although, while and even as - are subordinate conjunctions, still contrasting the two sides of sentence.

Secondly a fragment is in effect a collection or a jumble of words, essentially without a verb. But the second part of the sentence has a rock solid passive voice verb- has been stifled.-

But the biggest problem in B is the ungrammatical joining of two independent clauses by a mere comma, a serious style error


So E
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2010, 09:39
(A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers --- but and instead are redundant
(B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers -- correct
(C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing –- “being” statements are generally avoided in GMAT unless the non underlines part indicates that the sentence is in passive voice.
(D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled -- “being” statements are generally avoided in GMAT unless the non underlines part indicates that the sentence is in passive voice.
(E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers --- “instead” is placed after semicolon. "Instead" seems unnecessary after semicolon.


So my Option is B.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2010, 16:44
(A) "But" is a coordinating conjuction. After "but", another independent clause should exist. However, subject is missing. Sentence structure error.
(B) Run on sentence. Sentence structure and style error.
(C) "being"
(D) Many errors. "there" pronoun error; Run on sentence error; Passive voice; "Being"
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2010, 20:55
E.

B was tempting, but E seemed to have no grammatical error.

I believe that 'instead' can not be used as a coordinating conjunction(and, but, so...) or subordinator(although, because, since...).
It works more like therefore.

I didn't know use of semicolon voids parallelism. Glad to learn it.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2010, 21:14
B is a run-on sentence. Insert "but" before "instead" then the sentence will be complete.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2010, 01:08
E over B, because E has the ; and B has "functioning in a stifled manner" which is wordy and sounds odd.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2010, 01:25
If the question had been (assuming for a moment for purposes of the hypo that there is only one such principle):

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to THE free market principle, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

Then E (I have removed the 's' in principles below for the hypo):

E)principle; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Then "its" functioning in option E - "its" would be ambiguous, right?

Can some one please confirm, whether in the question in its present form "its" is ok to use in E because its can only logically refer to the market and not to the free market "principles" (in plural)?

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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2010, 04:08
vaibhavtripathi wrote:
I vaguely remember reading somewhere something like:
1). "Instead is used for a replacement", eg. "I'd ask my sister's friend, instead of my friend's sister, out for a date".
2). "Rather is used for a change of action/plan", eg. "I'd rather date my girlfriend than do my homework".

If indeed this be true, arent all of the options shady? Or have I got it all wrong?

PS: Please excuse the examples if they sound true-ish, they have helped me get the rule :)


I admit that I got the concept wrong.
Not "Instead" but "Instead of" is used for replacement. "Instead" is used as an adverb for a clause and must always be used either in the beginning or at the end.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2010, 23:05
I think that "instead it..." would be wrong in B. If not for the wrong modifying phrase, B would've been the pick of the draw.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 27 Oct 2010, 10:37
B, two sentences separate by a comma - run on sentence
E is the best choice
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 14 Dec 2010, 22:39
BKimball wrote:
This is a tough question, so let's break down the semicolon/comma issue a bit:

It would be far too general to say that "The GMAT prefers commas" or "The GMAT prefers semicolons." The reality is the GMAT prefers whichever one is more accurate. If the clause that precedes the semicolon/comma and the clause that follows the semicolon/comma are both independent (i.e. they are complete sentence on their own) you must connect them with either:

-A semicolon
-A comma AND a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

Notice how the GMAT complicates this for us: In some of the answers above, the second half of the sentence is an independent clause, and in others it is not. This is why it's critical to read through every single answer choice closely when you have a semicolon/comma split.

Notice how choice E above is two independent clauses correctly connected by a semicolon. You could replace the semicolon with a period and then capitalize the word "Instead" and you'd be good to go with two separate sentences.

In choice B, you can really also replace the comma with a period and capitalize the word "Instead" as the start of the sentence. What this tells you is that you need to replace that comma with a semicolon.


Brett earlier you have mentioned that we can connect with either comma or semi colon and in the the above sentence you are saying you need to replace comma with semicolon. It is still confusing for me.
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 01 Jan 2011, 03:57
(B)

A)principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B)principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C)principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D)principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled passive & not parallel
E)principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers not parallel
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 21 Mar 2011, 09:27
Between B and E , B has been rejected because it is a run-on sentence . what is running on in B ? if there are two independent clauses cant they be connected by 'instead' as a conjunction ?

in E , the semicolon marks the beginning of an independent clause . can the independent clause begin with 'instead' ?
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Re: SC-700 Level [#permalink] New post 22 Mar 2011, 00:12
victorxman182 wrote:
Can somebody explain what is a run-on sentence?

Have a look @ http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/run-on-sentences.aspx
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 24 Jan 2012, 20:10
I answered B, however it is clear that "Instead" used in B is not a conjunction. Answer E clearly uses semicolon correctly by connecting two different but related independent clauses. Also, its is clearly referred back to labor market.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 02 May 2012, 00:39
IMO it'll be (E), because semicolon has been used properly between two independent sentences. B clearly has run-on issue.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2012, 00:46
aaron22197 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

(A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
(B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
(C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
(D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
(E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers


i pick E. A is out because there is a fragment. 2 ICs cant be adjoined by a comma. so B is out. the meaning of C is convoluted. wording of D is awkward.
so E is the answer. correct me if i am wrong
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 07 Jun 2012, 22:11
Should we not consider parallelism for tenses
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

in e--- principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
This is not parallel with has not been operating
Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not   [#permalink] 07 Jun 2012, 22:11
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