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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not

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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2006, 02:57
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Last edited by karlfurt on 07 Dec 2006, 05:53, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 30 Oct 2012, 21:28
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You can see B is clearly a run – on, with just a comma separating two ics. E avoids this trap, by punctuating with a semicolon. That B is wordier than E, is an additional ammunition
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 30 Oct 2012, 21:49
daagh wrote:
You can see B is clearly a run – on, with just a comma separating two ics. E avoids this trap, by punctuating with a semicolon. That B is wordier than E, is an additional ammunition


daagh - X rather than Y here X and Y can be clauses / Noun / Noun phrase....
BUT for when we use Instead of (X instead of Y) X and Y cannot be clauses and MUST be Nouns or something from the same category.

Also can u pin-point the exact error in A although I know its sounds very awkward...
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2012, 03:13
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2012, 03:34
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
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Re: Sentence Correction:Paralllel Structure [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2012, 07:57
I picked B and do not understand why the answer is E

In the choice E, "its" in the second sentence refers to what? Is it not the error.

An explanation would be helpful.
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Re: Sentence Correction:Paralllel Structure [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2012, 13:11
B : is wrong bcoz its a Run On - 2 independent clauses incorrectly joined by a Comma.

E : ITS is part of the subject of the 2nd clause......and it correctly refers back to the antecedent ( THE LABOUR MARKET)-- the subject of the 1st clause.
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Re: Sentence Correction:Paralllel Structure [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2012, 14:09
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers. Not parallel - wrong!

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers. Very awkward construction, the two sections are not joined properly with a comma

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing. Require a 'but' or similar to contrast the two sections either side of the comma

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled Being is a danger word - avoid at all costs.

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers. Looks good to me, parallel, consistent. I'm happy
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Re: Sentence Correction:Paralllel Structure [#permalink] New post 08 Nov 2012, 02:24
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers



Superficially, the sentence is taking two statements loosely connected one which refers to how the Labor market was operating in the past , and another to How it is operating now..
We need someway to connect the two clauses ..

A sounds to confusing and wrong therefore best to start off with the remaining options and try to eliminate maximum possible..

(B) Tries to connect these clauses by using the conjunctive adverb INSTEAD and puts a COMMA preceding instead..One rule regarding conjunctive adverb worth remembering is that they may be used to connect two clauses by USING

i) a Semi colon ... CLAUSE X - SEMI COLON - Conjunctive adverb, CLAUSE Y ..
ii) Use a PERIOD/FULL STOP after the first clause. - Introduce the conjunctive adverb followed by the CLAUSE Y ...

Because B adds the conjunctive adverb INSTEAD it looks tempting however it fails to use a semi colon, nor does it use a period / full stop to separate the two clauses.. Therefore it looks suspect ...

(C) Like B, C also introduces a conjunctive adverb RATHER however it it uses RATHER much like (B) used INSTEAD... C too looks suspect..

(D) Introduces a semi colon, but does not use a conjunctive adverb or a linking/transitional phrase. Semi colon alone does not permit one to connect two clauses...we need something to BRIDGE THE GAP..

(E) Correctly uses the semi colon followed by the conjunctive adverb INSTEAD ...


Other correct versions of this sentence :

principles. Instead, it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers


principles. Rather, functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing



Use of SEMI COLON, COLON, COMMA etc are less important than say Parralelism or modifiers however few rules are a must , and overall as long as you memorize the rules regarding their usage, they aren't much of an issue..

Hope it helps..
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 08 Nov 2012, 20:24
A is out for for obvious reasons..

B and C are "run on sentences" and C uses rather...

D, tries to use a semi colon, but should have used a conjunctive adverb or a transitional phrase to better merge the two clauses ..

E, Uses the semi colon, followed by the conjunctive adverb INSTEAD (in a correct fashion) . Does not change the meaning in any way ..

E is the correct answer here ..

This is what the author is trying to say .. Of course he wants to say it in one sentence ...
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles. Instead, it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

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Re: Sentence Correction:Paralllel Structure [#permalink] New post 26 Nov 2012, 19:07
Why is E considered correct? What is the subject of the 2nd part of the sentence in E?

OA?
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 26 Nov 2012, 19:44
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers but instead both suggest contradictory clauses. They are redundant. Only one would have sufficed.

principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers The second clause is independent and should be connected with a semicolon

principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing Slight change in meaning from working in stifled manner to functioning though stifled

principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled Its functioning... Misplaced modifier

principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers Correct

IMO answer is E.
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 23 Feb 2013, 22:07
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

(A)principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

(B)principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

(C)principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

(D)principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

(E)principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Need detail explanation.anyone plz help me...........
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Re: During the past decade,the labour market in France has been [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2013, 07:24
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Re: During the past decade,the labour market in France has been [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2013, 09:02
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mun23 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

Need detail explanation.anyone plz help me...........


Hi dhruvd and mun23,

(A)principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

stifling means to suffocate, the use of active voice in this sentence means that "labor market" is stifling itself, this is incorrect. The labor market's functioning is stifled by the the government regulations, so an active construction instead of a passive one is preferred; second, "its various government regulations" means that the regulations are made by labor market, again the meaning is inappropriate.

(B)principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

The meaning is clear in this sentnece but the punctuation used is incorrect. Two independent clauses are joined by using just a comma. A semicolon or comma + and would have been more appropriate.

(C)principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

The intended meaning is that the functioning of the labor market is being stifled by the government regulations, but the sentence changes the meaning to say that the labor market is being stifled, which is incorrect. Second, "variously restrict" is again incorrect, the sentence meant "various government regulations" so "various" should modify "government regulations" and not "restrict". Moreover, the construction "variously restrict" is awkward at best.

(D)principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

This sentence is the second best option in among all the answer choices. "its" has no clear antecedent. Moreover, "there" is used for physical locations and less preferred for "labor market"

(E)principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

This choice is clear and concise. The semicolon is correctly used to connect two independent clauses. The meaning is clear as it clearly expresses that the functioning of the labor market is stifled by the government regulations.

Hope that helps,

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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2013, 22:08
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

a. principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

b. principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

c. principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

d. principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

e. principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA after discussion.

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Last edited by greatps24 on 28 Feb 2013, 10:47, edited 1 time in total.
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During the past decade, the labor market in France [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2013, 22:08
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

a. principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

b. principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

c. principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

d. principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

e. principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA after discussion.

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2013, 22:23
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

a. principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers-Incorrect Redundancy...(but&instead)

b. principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers...correct

c. principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing...being is wordy in GMAT

d. principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled..Incorrect..Passive Voice..being is wordy in GMAT

e. principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers...Incorrect..Passive Voice


Please correct if i am wrong..
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2013, 23:14
prasannajeet wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

a. principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers-Incorrect Redundancy...(but&instead)

b. principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers...correct

c. principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing...being is wordy in GMAT

d. principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled..Incorrect..Passive Voice..being is wordy in GMAT

e. principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers...Incorrect..Passive Voice


Please correct if i am wrong..


In B, you are joining two independent clause with "instead". Instead is an adverb not conjunction. Therefore, B is incorrect..
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2013, 23:17
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greatps24 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

a. principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

b. principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

c. principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

d. principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

e. principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA after discussion.


Hi greatps24,

Yesterday I posted the detailed explanation for this question. Please see the post below. I am merging the posts; if you have a specific doubt then let me know.

during-the-past-decade-the-labor-market-in-france-has-not-147814.html#p1189470


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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2013, 00:21
greatps24 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA after discussion.


a. principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
Incorrect: ", but instead..." starts a new clause which is missing a subject or an object (ei. "it"). We can't answer the question "What is stiffling?".

b. principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
Incorrect: "Instead" requires a comma. Also, it marks the beginning of an independent clause. It is against grammar rules to connect two independent clauses with a comma.

c. principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
Incorrect: Same missing subject and verb pair as in choice A. Also, "rather" would be OK to use with ", but" in front of it but not by itself.

d. principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
Incorrect: pronoun "there" does not have a proper antecedent. Same applies to ", its functioning..."

e. principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
Correct: ";" ends the independent clause and starts a new one with "instead". Proper usage of "," after "instead". Noun phrase "its functioning" refers to the subject ("labor market").
Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France   [#permalink] 28 Feb 2013, 00:21
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