During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale

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During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2011, 15:45
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During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale structure of the universe evolved from the theoretical to the practical; the field of physical cosmology was made possible because of both Einstein's theory of relativity and the better ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects.

A)because of both Einstein's theory of relativity and
B)by both Einstein's theory of relativity and
C)by Einstein's theory of relativity and also
D)because of Einstein's theory of relativity and also
E)as a result of both Einstein's theory of relativity and
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: During the twentieth century, [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2011, 08:32
manalq8 wrote:
During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale structure of the universe evolved from the theoretical to the practical; the field of physical cosmology was made possible because of both Einstein's theory of relativity and the better ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects.

A)because of both Einstein's theory of relativity and
B)by both Einstein's theory of relativity and
C)by Einstein's theory of relativity and also
D)because of Einstein's theory of relativity and also
E)as a result of both Einstein's theory of relativity and

I chose D and it was wrong. I won't post the answer just in case someone else wants to try it.
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Re: During the twentieth century, [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2011, 18:38
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The answer choices for this question are all very similar in terms of pure meaning: [causal conjunction] Einstein's theory of relativity and (also)

In cases like this, where there seem to be "too many right answers", look for the simplest way to package what every answer says. Being concise is key. The simplest way isn't always the shortest, but look for complete, accurate meaning with the simplest, most direct syntax and structure.

Lastly, two smaller tip-offs that signal the right answer and might be helpful if you're stuck between choosing between two:
1. "made possible by" is slightly more idomatically common and natural than "made possible as a result of" or "made possible because of".
2. If you take a step back and look at the whole sentence, the emphasis is on the evolution from theoretical to practical, so NOT ONLY Einstein's theory, but the more practical "ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects" as well, so emphasizing the two by using the word "both" prominently before the conjoined noun phrases.

Hope that helps!
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Re: During the twentieth century, [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2011, 21:08
B it is. The idiomatic construction "both X and Y" fits the sentence perfectly.

X = Einstein's theory of relativity
Y = better ability to...objects

Both are parallel in structure. Moreover, as margaratte has said above, "made possible by" makes more sense than the other options.
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Re: During the twentieth century, [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 02:36
margarette wrote:
The answer choices for this question are all very similar in terms of pure meaning: [causal conjunction] Einstein's theory of relativity and (also)

In cases like this, where there seem to be "too many right answers", look for the simplest way to package what every answer says. Being concise is key. The simplest way isn't always the shortest, but look for complete, accurate meaning with the simplest, most direct syntax and structure.

Lastly, two smaller tip-offs that signal the right answer and might be helpful if you're stuck between choosing between two:
1. "made possible by" is slightly more idomatically common and natural than "made possible as a result of" or "made possible because of".
2. If you take a step back and look at the whole sentence, the emphasis is on the evolution from theoretical to practical, so NOT ONLY Einstein's theory, but the more practical "ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects" as well, so emphasizing the two by using the word "both" prominently before the conjoined noun phrases.

Hope that helps!

"Made possible by" is idiom, isn't it? or we choose based on the most shortest version?
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Re: During the twentieth century, [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 09:30
[quote="margarette"]The answer choices for this question are all very similar in terms of pure meaning: [causal conjunction] Einstein's theory of relativity and (also)

In cases like this, where there seem to be "too many right answers", look for the simplest way to package what every answer says. Being concise is key. The simplest way isn't always the shortest, but look for complete, accurate meaning with the simplest, most direct syntax and structure.

Lastly, two smaller tip-offs that signal the right answer and might be helpful if you're stuck between choosing between two:
1. "made possible by" is slightly more idomatically common and natural than "made possible as a result of" or "made possible because of".
2. If you take a step back and look at the whole sentence, the emphasis is on the evolution from theoretical to practical, so NOT ONLY Einstein's theory, but the more practical "ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects" as well, so emphasizing the two by using the word "both" prominently before the conjoined noun phrases.

is" made possible by" only flaw in the option D or and also is also incorrect?
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Re: During the twentieth century, [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 09:56
I ignored option (C) and (D) becasue of expression "and also".

MGMAT SC puts expression "and also" in SUSPECT category(pg 161). Can someone suggest is it fair to ignore "and also"?

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Re: During the twentieth century, [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 14:55
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tuanquang269 wrote:

"Made possible by" is idiom, isn't it? or we choose based on the most shortest version?

For "made possible", "by" would be the best, idiomatically, but I would avoid relying solely on memorization of idiomatic phrasing to choose an answer, and use it more as a last test. Basically, any formulaic or ironclad strategies such as if X then answer is Y, especially when it comes to Verbal, are tricky (but that's another discussion!).

alex39 wrote:

is "made possible by" only flaw in the option D or and also is also incorrect?

The "because of" is certainly a detractor, as is the lack of emphasis on the conjunction (having "and also" at the end), but the overall wording of that answer choice ("because of Einstein's theory of relativity and also") is unwieldy.

Capricorn369 wrote:
I ignored option (C) and (D) becasue of expression "and also".

MGMAT SC puts expression "and also" in SUSPECT category(pg 161). Can someone suggest is it fair to ignore "and also"?

Cheers!

"And also" may seem a little redundant, since you're basically saying the same thing twice ("and" conjoins and "also" introduces an addition) but I wouldn't put a blanket ban on it, since there are some cases where it could be used effectively. For this particular question, "and also" is incorrect because when you say "Einstein's theory of relativity AND ALSO better ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects", it seems to subordinate the second practical example (as if you said "I like apples and also oranges", it seems as if you liked apples a bit more, right?), which we don't want to do, because the prompt says studies have "evolved from the theoretical to the practical". Using the word "both" eliminates this risk.

Feel free to let me know if you guys want me to clarify anything, I'd be happy to help!
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Re: During the twentieth century, [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2011, 01:36
+1 for B. 'Made possible by' looks better than other choices!
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Re: During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2014, 05:15
If I don't know the idiom here, then how to choose between A and B.
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Re: During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2014, 11:44
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This sentence uses the Passive Voice and in such sentences "because of" and "by" must follow the structures below:

Action because of cause/reason for the action
Action by agent of the action

Now if we look at the sentence
the field of physical cosmology was made possible because of both Einstein's theory of relativity and the better ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects.

Einstein's theory of relativity does not (automatically) cause the field of physical cosmology.
The theory is just an agent (means), not a reason, by which the field is made possible. Hence the structure Action by agent of the action is more appropriate here.

Same logic applies to the better ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects.

Only options B & C have the correct structure. In C "and also" is redundant, hence B is the best option.
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Re: During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2014, 19:25
prasun9 wrote:
This sentence uses the Passive Voice and in such sentences "because of" and "by" must follow the structures below:

Action because of cause/reason for the action
Action by agent of the action

Now if we look at the sentence
the field of physical cosmology was made possible because of both Einstein's theory of relativity and the better ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects.

Einstein's theory of relativity does not (automatically) cause the field of physical cosmology.
The theory is just an agent (means), not a reason, by which the field is made possible. Hence the structure Action by agent of the action is more appropriate here.

Same logic applies to the better ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects.

Only options B & C have the correct structure. In C "and also" is redundant, hence B is the best option.

Thanks Prasun. For sharing the inputs.
I think i got the crux here. Capturing the analysis from my end, just to ensure that we r on same page.

Because of Vs By:

Because of =>
Because of and because introduce a cause or reason for a particular situation.
Because of is followed by a noun phrase and because is followed by a clause.

Demonstrators protested
(Why?) because of their dissatisfaction.
Demonstrations arose/ occurred/ happened
(Why?) because of dissatisfaction.

Neighboring countries were worried
because of the unrest.

By =>
1:By and with introduce a means or method for a particular action that someone takes or something does.
Demonstrators protested
(How?)with a march in Tahrir Square.
by marching in Tahrir Square.

Change resulted
(How?)with the formation of a council.
by forming a temporary council.

2:After a passive verb, by introduces the agent of the action. The agent is often a person or persons, but the agent may also be inanimate.
Some protestors were injured
(by whom/what?)by other protestors.
by opposing demonstrators.

Neighboring countries were worried
by news reports about the unrest.

Now coming to the original question:
the study ... evolved from the theoretical to the practical;
the field ... was made possible [This can be answered by (by whom/what);hence by is the correct usage here.]
[because of/by ] both
Einstein's theory of relativity and
the better ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects.

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Re: During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2015, 22:30
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