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Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR.

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Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2013, 19:28
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Efficiently tackle Inference questions in CR and RC



Approach to RC Inference Type questions (may not apply in CR inferences):


•Inference answers are not readily identifiable. So ELIMINATION by “Word Justification” and “TRANSLATION” is the most critical skill. Do not select a half true answer in any case. Any statement that is inconsistent with the passage is always wrong.

•Inference questions will typically read: “The passage suggests which of the following about “XYZ”?” OR “Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about XYZ”? OR “Information in the passage implies which of the following about “XYZ”?

•Usually, do not select an answer that repeats VERBATIM information for inference questions.
CONCEPT OF COMPLEMENT INFORMATION:


If the question requires that we make an inference about COLD-BLOODED animals, it is most likely done on the basis of interpreting information in the passage about the COMPLEMENTARY group of WARM-BLOODED animals.

If the question requires us to infer the type of jazz music played BEFORE 1945, we will be required to interpret information about the type of jazz music played AFTER 1945.

If the passage mentions ‘married people’, the question may be about ‘unmarried people’.
Let us say the passage is about a ‘recent theory about gold deposits’ then the question might be about an ‘earlier theory about gold deposits’.

If the passage says: “the customers were not leaving at an unacceptable rate for whatever reason”.
We may infer that “company was able to retain customers at an acceptable rate.”

If the passage states that ‘Miles Davis and his group that assembled in a Harlem apartment in 1945 SLOWED DOWN the tempo of jazz music and STARTED featuring ensemble playing’. Our inference about the type of jazz music played BEFORE 1945 is that … the tempo was more rapid and SOLO playing (the complement of ensemble playing) was the norm.

•If the passage states that “Economists believe that further interest rate cuts will provide the needed acceleration to the sluggish economy.” Our inference on the basis of this statement will be that … the ‘economic progress is not dynamic and ‘needs’ to be speeded up.

•If the passage states that “Graduate School admission procedures since 1990 have always included Standardized test scores as a critical factor in the evaluation process.”Our inference about the ‘admission procedures’ prior to 1990 on the basis of this statement will be that … ‘prior to 1990’, Standardized test scores were not a critical factor in the evaluation process for admission to Graduate Schools.

•If the passage states that “Cold blooded animals were chosen for tests on the effects of temperatures on invading organisms because the temperatures of cold blooded animals can be easily controlled in a laboratory setting”. Our inference about the ‘warm blooded animals’ on the basis of this statement will be that … the ‘temperatures of warm blooded animals could not be easily controlled in a laboratory setting”.

•If the passage states that “Earth will receive a meteor shower during its yearly travel through the Geminid meteor stream”. Our inference will be that: the earth travels through the Geminid meteor stream ‘once a year’.

•If the passage states that “Unconditional guarantees deceptively suggest that the results can be guaranteed’. Our inference will be that: “Results” cannot be guaranteed.

•If the passage states that “The textile mill-owners chose women for jobs that required detailed attention and repetitive actions because they thought that women were more patient with such jobs”. Our inference will be: “Men were not patient with jobs requiring detailed attention and repetitive actions.”

•If the passage states that “Some economists believe that all companies should give away free shares to their employees in order to provide the needed acceleration of the privatization process.” Our inference will be: “According to some economists, the privatization process is proceeding slowly and needs to be speeded up.”

•If the statement reads, ‘the colonists suspected that the Massachusetts governor was involved in a CONSPIRACY to deprive them of their civil liberties’. Our inference will be that: the colonists believed that more than one person was involved in the scheme to deprive them of their civil rights.

•If the statement in the passage reads, ‘the administration’s tax cut proposals will provide the NEEDED stimulus to the American economy’, our inference will be: we would infer the adjective ‘needed’ to mean that the ‘American economy requires some incentive in the form of tax breaks to tax payers’.

•If the statement in the passage reads, “The Morrill Act of 1862 SUCCESSFULLY created land-grant institutions in the mid-western United States”. Our inference will be: ‘the Morrill Act of 1862 had the goal of creating land-grant institutions’. (‘Success’ implies achievement of a favorable or desired goal or outcome, and the use of the WORD ‘successfully’ suggests that the goal of the Act was to create the land- grant institutions).

•If the context-specific statement in the passage reads, “The earth association claims that, through its mailers to 2000 individuals, it CONVERTED 2000 individuals to its cause” Our inference will be that: the ‘earth association makes an unverified statement that none of the 2000 individuals who received its mailers already believed in the cause that the association represents’.

•If the context-specific statement in the passage reads, “as a result of the breeding practices that led to increased productivity, the overall genetic variability of cultivated wheat has drastically declined in the last two centuries” Our inference will be: the “overall genetic variability of cultivated wheat was far greater 200 years ago”.

•If the context-specific statement in the passage reads, “the work of Miles Davis and his group that assembled in a New York city apartment in 1945 slowed down the tempo of Jazz music and featured ensemble playing as much as or even more than solo playing”. Our inference will be: ‘tempo of Jazz music was more rapid prior to 1945 and that Jazz music did not feature ‘ensemble playing’ before 1945 to the same extent as it did after 1945’.

•If the statement reads, “law-makers argue that if telecommunication equipment were allowed to be exported to Cuba, repression by Castro regime cannot indefinitely continue” Can we logically interpret that telecommunication equipment is the best way to prevent the struggle for freedom?
oNO: do not creatively interpret ‘repression’ to mean ‘a struggle for freedom’ or the idea of
‘exporting telecommunication equipment to Cuba’ to mean that ‘telecommunication equipment is the best way to prevent repression’.

•If the context-specific statement reads, “Watteau’s admirers BELIEVED that the images were genuine” Can we logically interpret that “Watteau’s admirers were UNWILLING to consider the possibility that the images were not genuine”?
oNO: The fact that some BELIEVED something to be true does not necessarily mean that they
were ‘unwilling’ to accept other explanations.
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 19 Jan 2013, 06:48
Hi Marcab,

Can you please provide the OAs and Explainations if you have.

Regards,
Mansoor
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 19 Jan 2013, 20:04
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I am very Sorry Mansoor, but I don't have the direct OAs. But on googling on GC, you may get the answers to respective questions.
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 26 Jan 2013, 01:43
Hi Marcab,

Need a bit of help regarding RC.
currently i'm doing very well in CR & SC but RC as usual has been my weakness.

Earlier i use to score around 50 percent correct in RC but following new approach i'm able to nail most nail most structure questions. Here i dont read the whole passage but first sentence of each passage or 1 more sentence in purpose is not clear and also look for idea transitions.

But when i'm presented with a detail questions at the start i consume too much time as i have to do this initial reading to get a feel of the passage and then look for detail.

Questions that specially trouble me are the ones where i need to match many details with the passage. And here i get confused as to read the full passage or do the initial reading and then use POE to answers.

For example, if the passage asks for thing that the author won't agree with. I need to know 4 things that he will agree with and those may be scattered through out the passage.

As you are good in RC, Please help me to get over this difficulty. I have my GMAT in 2 weeks so i would prefer fine tuning the existing strategy or knowing where actually i'm making mistakes.

Best Regards,
Mansoor
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 26 Jan 2013, 01:51
Ok, here is a passage from OG:


--------------------------------------------------
Archaeology as a profession faces two major prob-
lems. First, it is the poorest of the poor. Only paltry
sums are available for excavating and even less is avail-
able for publishing the results and preserving the sites
(5) once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless
objects every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal
excavation, resulting in museum-quality pieces being
sold to the highest bidder.
I would like to make an outrageous suggestion that
(10) would at one stroke provide funds for archaeology and
reduce the amount of illegal digging. I would propose
that scientific archeological expeditions and govern-
mental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open
market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for
(15) the excavation and preservation of archaeological sites
and the publication of results. At the same time, they
would break the illegal excavator’s grip on the market,
thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in illegal
activities.
(20) You might object that professionals excavate to
acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient arti-
facts are part of our global cultural heritage, which
should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the
highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that has unique

(25) artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply,
everything that comes our of the ground has scientific
value. Here we part company. Theoretically, you may be
correct in claiming that every artifact has potential scien-
tific value. Practically, you are wrong.
(30) I refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient
lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another. In
one small excavation in Cyprus, archaeologists recently
uncovered 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs in
a single courtyard, Even precious royal seal impressions
(35) known as/melekh handles have been found in abun-
dance---more than 4,000 examples so far.
The basements of museums are simply not large
enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be discov-
ered in the future. There is not enough money even to
(40) catalogue the finds; as a result, they cannot be found
again and become as inaccessible as if they had never
been discovered. Indeed, with the help of a computer,
sold artifacts could be more accessible than are the
pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to
(45) sale, each could be photographed and the list of the
purchasers could be maintained on the computer A
purchaser could even be required to agree to return the
piece if it should become needed for scientific purposes.
It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging
(50) would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market.
But the demand for the clandestine product would be
substantially reduced. Who would want an unmarked
pot when another was available whose provenance was
known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the
professional archaeologist who excavated it?
------------------------------------------------------------

Question:
The author implies that all of the following statements about duplicate artifacts are true EXCEPT:
(A) A market for such artifacts already exists.
(B) Such artifacts seldom have scientific value.
(C) There is likely to be a continuing supply of such artifacts.
(D) Museums are well supplied with examples of such artifacts.
(E) Such artifacts frequently exceed in quality those already catalogued in museum collections.
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 26 Jan 2013, 01:58
Expert's post
Honestly speaking, my weakest link is RC. What I found is that if I give sufficient time to read the entire passage and take notes, I do well. But reading the entire passage takes time and to compensate here, I try to do SC questions under a minute. There will be around 14 SC questions and if my maths is right, I can save aleast 8-10 minutes. The time saved here is the time spent on reading in RC.
Regarding the detailed questions, reading is the only way we can prevent ourselves from faring bad.
Hope all goes well.
Good Luck and regards.
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 26 Jan 2013, 02:16
Expert's post
mansoorfarooqui wrote:
Ok, here is a passage from OG:


--------------------------------------------------
Archaeology as a profession faces two major prob-
lems. First, it is the poorest of the poor. Only paltry
sums are available for excavating and even less is avail-
able for publishing the results and preserving the sites
(5) once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless
objects every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal
excavation, resulting in museum-quality pieces being
sold to the highest bidder.
I would like to make an outrageous suggestion that
(10) would at one stroke provide funds for archaeology and
reduce the amount of illegal digging. I would propose
that scientific archeological expeditions and govern-
mental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open
market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for
(15) the excavation and preservation of archaeological sites
and the publication of results. At the same time, they
would break the illegal excavator’s grip on the market,
thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in illegal
activities.
(20) You might object that professionals excavate to
acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient arti-
facts are part of our global cultural heritage, which
should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the
highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that has unique

(25) artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply,
everything that comes our of the ground has scientific
value. Here we part company. Theoretically, you may be
correct in claiming that every artifact has potential scien-
tific value. Practically, you are wrong.
(30) I refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient
lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another
. In
one small excavation in Cyprus, archaeologists recently
uncovered 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs in
a single courtyard, Even precious royal seal impressions
(35) known as/melekh handles have been found in abun-
dance---more than 4,000 examples so far.
The basements of museums are simply not large
enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be discov-
ered in the future.
There is not enough money even to
(40) catalogue the finds; as a result, they cannot be found
again and become as inaccessible as if they had never
been discovered. Indeed, with the help of a computer,
sold artifacts could be more accessible than are the
pieces stored in bulging museum basements
. Prior to
(45) sale, each could be photographed and the list of the
purchasers could be maintained on the computer A
purchaser could even be required to agree to return the
piece if it should become needed for scientific purposes.
It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging
(50) would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market.
But the demand for the clandestine product would be
substantially reduced. Who would want an unmarked
pot when another was available whose provenance was
known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the
professional archaeologist who excavated it?
------------------------------------------------------------

Question:
The author implies that all of the following statements about duplicate artifacts are true EXCEPT:
(A) A market for such artifacts already exists.
(B) Such artifacts seldom have scientific value.
(C) There is likely to be a continuing supply of such artifacts.
(D) Museums are well supplied with examples of such artifacts.
(E) Such artifacts frequently exceed in quality those already catalogued in museum collections.


In the passage, we are supposed to look for the answer which has not been mentioned about duplicate artifacts.
I have highlighted those for convenience, but even if you don't want to look at the passage then one thing that can be done is read the choices carefully. Here doing this can save much of your time because as soon as you read answer choice E, you will notice that "quality" was not even discussed.
By the way, how are you preparing for the RCs. Whats the source?
You may look at VeritasPrep question bank for RCs. They have good passages with detailed explanations.
Regards.
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 27 Jan 2013, 07:56
Hi Marcab,

Thanks for the feedback!

I am using only official passages only. OG12, 13, VR2, Prep pack1.
Are these sufficient?

Today i took a MGMAT CAT and got disheartened to see V34, although for past few days i solved OG12/13 + VR2 with almost 90% accuracy in CR and SC and 65% in RC.

On analyzing, i noticed that all the questions that costed me 2 or above minutes got wrong. less than 2 mins correct almost 85-90% of the time. and all were 700-800 level questions. Do you see any pattern here. What i'm doing wrong. I finished verbal section with 6 mins remaining.

This is the first test in CAT series and i noticed i got 90% questions that were 700-800 difficulty. I got almost all RC wrong (6-7), 4SC & 4 CR

Best Regards,
Mansoor
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 27 Jan 2013, 07:58
i have not used prep pack 1 yet..
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 31 Jan 2013, 03:28
Expert's post
mansoorfarooqui wrote:
Hi Marcab,

Thanks for the feedback!

I am using only official passages only. OG12, 13, VR2, Prep pack1.
Are these sufficient?

Today i took a MGMAT CAT and got disheartened to see V34, although for past few days i solved OG12/13 + VR2 with almost 90% accuracy in CR and SC and 65% in RC.

On analyzing, i noticed that all the questions that costed me 2 or above minutes got wrong. less than 2 mins correct almost 85-90% of the time. and all were 700-800 level questions. Do you see any pattern here. What i'm doing wrong. I finished verbal section with 6 mins remaining.

This is the first test in CAT series and i noticed i got 90% questions that were 700-800 difficulty. I got almost all RC wrong (6-7), 4SC & 4 CR

Best Regards,
Mansoor


Hii Mansoor.
Sorry for the late reply.
Hope prep is going well.
Regarding MGMAT CAT 1, don't bother much about the result but don't forget to learn from your mistakes. Having said that, I also feel that there is a need to mention that MGMAT CAT 1 is somewhat harder than the rest of the CATs.
I guess its around 2 weeks left for your exam, so I shall suggest to go for prep pack 1.
Regards.
Good luck for your Said application and your exam. May god bless you.
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 31 Jan 2013, 03:38
Thanks Marcab!
I have started using prep pack1 and also I'm practicing RCs on grockit coz it's timed and questions are good too. I figured out that i have timing issues.
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 01 Feb 2013, 19:14
Hey mansoor,

How are you finding grockit passage question.
Even i am struggling with scatter detail questions and inference.

Regards,
Aristocrat

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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 01 Feb 2013, 22:45
Hi Aristocrat,

If you feel time pressure while doing RC then i would suggest using grockit. The quality of passages and questions are both and they are timed and also maintains a log of quizzes you attempted so that you can review your mistakes later. Additionally, what i really like about grockit is that you can practice the specific type of questions.

For tougher RCs try GMC forum and aristotle RC99

Best Regards,
Mansoor
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 21 Feb 2013, 04:50
mansoorfarooqui wrote:
Hi Marcab,

Thanks for the feedback!

I am using only official passages only. OG12, 13, VR2, Prep pack1.
Are these sufficient?

Today i took a MGMAT CAT and got disheartened to see V34, although for past few days i solved OG12/13 + VR2 with almost 90% accuracy in CR and SC and 65% in RC.

On analyzing, i noticed that all the questions that costed me 2 or above minutes got wrong. less than 2 mins correct almost 85-90% of the time. and all were 700-800 level questions. Do you see any pattern here. What i'm doing wrong. I finished verbal section with 6 mins remaining.

This is the first test in CAT series and i noticed i got 90% questions that were 700-800 difficulty. I got almost all RC wrong (6-7), 4SC & 4 CR

Best Regards,
Mansoor


Hi Mansoor & Marcab

I am into same situation. My accuracy and timing in OGs verbal section is 80+ but in MGMAT CAT 1 i got V34.
Any comments/ suggestions?

Best Regards,
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 25 Aug 2013, 20:58
Fantastic article!
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR. [#permalink] New post 11 Oct 2013, 17:41
:fyi

Even before such concept be applied, the key is to mentally organize the specific references in the passage. What do I mean? In reading the OG13 explanations to inference OG problems, it is true that most answers will not be from the passage. The OG even tells us "Since the word 'suggests' is used in the question, the answer is probably not directly stated in the passage and therefore has to be inferred." However, this task becomes difficult because there can be one reference or multiple references of which the inference question is built off. Check out question 84 of OG 13. An inference question can also list some lines in the question stem (e.g. mentioned in lines 10-20) yet embed the answer in a later lines or even a few paragraphs. Check out question 57 of OG13. Therefore, learn how to organize the key parts in your head or scratch paper because it's too easy fall into tunnel-vision and select the trap answer.

That said, this is still a great article.
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Re: Efficiently tackle Inference questions in RC and CR.   [#permalink] 11 Oct 2013, 17:41
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