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# Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a

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Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2011, 17:19
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Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 25
Page: 124
Difficulty:

Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning?

Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of animals. If the group faces food scarcity, individuals in the group will reach reproductive maturity later than otherwise. If the group faces excessive hunting, individuals that reach reproductive maturity earlier will come to predominate. Therefore, it should be possible to determine whether prehistoric mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity or human hunting, since there are fossilized mastodon remains from both before and after mastodon populations declined, and __________.

A) there are more fossilized mastodon remains from the period before mastodon populations began to decline than from after that period.
B) the average age at which mastodons from a given period reach reproductive maturity can be established from their fossilized remains
C) it can be accurately estimated from fossilized remains when mastodons became extinct
D) it is not known when humans first began hunting mastodons
E) climate changes may have gradually reduced the food available to mastodons.

This is a question from the Verbal Review book from The Official Guide. Explanations would be greatly appreciated
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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Narenn on 16 Oct 2013, 06:33, edited 3 times in total.
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19 Jan 2011, 20:18
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Hi HBS, welcome the club!!

Find my comments in colors below.

HBSDreamer2015 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning?

Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of animals. If the group faces food scarcity, individuals in the group will reach reproductive maturity later than otherwise. If the group faces excessive hunting, individuals that reach reproductive maturity earlier will come to predominate. Therefore, it should be possible to determine whether prehistoric mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity or human hunting, since there are fossilized mastodon remains from both before and after mastodon populations declined, and __________.

A) there are more fossilized mastodon remains from the period before mastodon populations began to decline than from after that period. Incorrect-the quantity of available fossils before and after decline is not needed here
B) the average age at which mastodons from a given period reach reproductive maturity can be established from their fossilized remains Correct-To find out the reason of extinction of mastodons, we need to know the reproductive maturity mastodons.
C) it can be accurately estimated from fossilized remains when mastodons became extinct- Incorrect-time of extinction is ir-revlevant.
D) it is not known when humans first began hunting mastodons. Incorrect- period of hunting is ir-relevant.
E) climate changes may have gradually reduced the food available to mastodons. Incorrect-

Thanks

So, IMO "B"
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20 Jan 2011, 07:45
Moved to the CR forum.
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20 Jan 2011, 09:05
Oops!!! I missed to do so!!! Thanks bb

Posted from my mobile device
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20 Jan 2011, 13:13
+1 B
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21 Jan 2011, 06:14
+B
Easy one
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21 Jan 2011, 10:39
Yes it's B. Reproductive maturity is the only thing that enables one to find how they declined:
Late RM - Food scarcity
Earlier RM - Human hunting
Q - is about how they were able to find out which one of these two factors brought about the mastodon's decline. B clears it all up. IMHO
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21 Jan 2011, 12:38
Guys But what do the follized remains before and after the mastodons declined have to do with the objective ? Can someone elaborate
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22 Jan 2011, 06:14
mundasingh123 wrote:
Guys But what do the follized remains before and after the mastodons declined have to do with the objective ? Can someone elaborate

@mundasingh, According to the passage, when a certain animal popn declines it is either because b/c of human hunting or b/c or food scarcity. The fossilized remains are the things with which the scientists can determine whether their reproductive maturity was late or early (whether they were hunted or went hungry).

HTH
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22 Jan 2011, 06:44
mariyea wrote:
mundasingh123 wrote:
Guys But what do the follized remains before and after the mastodons declined have to do with the objective ? Can someone elaborate

@mundasingh, According to the passage, when a certain animal popn declines it is either because b/c of human hunting or b/c or food scarcity. The fossilized remains are the things with which the scientists can determine whether their reproductive maturity was late or early (whether they were hunted or went hungry).

HTH

Hi Mariyea thanks for the reply.In that case inspecting the fossilized remains of the mastodons after the decline for absence of sexul maturity should be enuf to find out the cause .
How will the fossilized reamins of the mastodons after the decline help ?
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22 Jan 2011, 08:02
mundasingh123 wrote:
mariyea wrote:
mundasingh123 wrote:
Guys But what do the follized remains before and after the mastodons declined have to do with the objective ? Can someone elaborate

@mundasingh, According to the passage, when a certain animal popn declines it is either because b/c of human hunting or b/c or food scarcity. The fossilized remains are the things with which the scientists can determine whether their reproductive maturity was late or early (whether they were hunted or went hungry).

HTH

Hi Mariyea thanks for the reply.In that case inspecting the fossilized remains of the mastodons after the decline for absence of sexul maturity should be enuf to find out the cause .
How will the fossilized reamins of the mastodons after the decline help ?

When the fossilized remains shows information on the mastodon's decline, it means something was causing their numbers to decrease.

The information (on whether human hunting or food scarcity caused a decrease in their number) can be found in the fossil remains. The fossil remains (after the decline) would have some information on the mastodon's sexual maturity (whether the mastodons matured faster than usual or they matured slower than usual). The option that (kind of) leans toward this statement is correct.
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25 Apr 2011, 08:06
B is simple enough . though i never heard what is a mastodon
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20 Mar 2012, 17:15
I have chosen the answer B for this question:

A. This answer choice only states the obvious assumption. Also, this statement does not help us identify whether the mastodon's became extinct because of food scarcity or excessive hunting.

B. This is the correct answer. By knowing the average age of reproductive maturity of the fossils, you can identify whether the fossils are in the "early stages" or whether they are in the "late stages." This will essentially tell you how the mastodon's became extinct - food scarcity or excessive hunting.

C. This answer choice tells us nothing. However, if the fossils were before the time of "hunting," then we could assume that the mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity.

D. Since it is not known when humans began hunting, this answer choice cannot be correct.

E. The fact that climate changes "may have" caused scarcity indicates some uncertainty. Also, it doesn't give us any additional information about the fossils.
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20 Mar 2012, 18:26
+B..the average age at which mastodons from a given period reach reproductive maturity can be established from their fossilized remains
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20 Mar 2012, 22:31
B is the only one relevant, giving necessary details
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19 Jul 2013, 16:43
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One way I find you can resolve this kind of questions which doesn't show direct flow is to sketch simple diagram

species ->hunted
|
early rep.

species -> less food
|
late rep.

this helps me not to re-read the premise again & waste time / get confused
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28 May 2016, 23:50
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a [#permalink]

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29 May 2016, 01:32
HBSDreamer2015 wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 25
Page: 124
Difficulty:

Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning?

Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of animals. If the group faces food scarcity, individuals in the group will reach reproductive maturity later than otherwise. If the group faces excessive hunting, individuals that reach reproductive maturity earlier will come to predominate. Therefore, it should be possible to determine whether prehistoric mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity or human hunting, since there are fossilized mastodon remains from both before and after mastodon populations declined, and __________.

A) there are more fossilized mastodon remains from the period before mastodon populations began to decline than from after that period.
B) the average age at which mastodons from a given period reach reproductive maturity can be established from their fossilized remains
C) it can be accurately estimated from fossilized remains when mastodons became extinct
D) it is not known when humans first began hunting mastodons
E) climate changes may have gradually reduced the food available to mastodons.

This is a question from the Verbal Review book from The Official Guide. Explanations would be greatly appreciated
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Thanks

 Food scarcity --------> Late reproductive maturityExcessive hunting---> Early reproductive maturity

Quote:
it should be possible to determine whether prehistoric mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity or human hunting,

Attachment:

Untitled.png [ 3.34 KiB | Viewed 1874 times ]

Determination of the possible cause of extinction of prehistoric mastodons if possible only only when -

1. We have fossil remains of mastodons
2. We can compare the age reproductive maturity

Thus among the given options only (B) matches, and is the correct answer..
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a   [#permalink] 29 May 2016, 01:32
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