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Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now

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Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2010, 14:59
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  5% (low)

Question Stats:

70% (02:44) correct 29% (01:40) wrong based on 57 sessions
Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly contain millions of electronic switches. Unfortunately, electronic switches that are this small cannot withstand intense radiation. Micro-Mechanics plans to produce a chip that, because it uses only microscopic mechanical switches, will be invulnerable to radiation damage. The switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches and the chip will contain only 12,000 switches.

For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chip as a result of the apparent advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:

A. There will be applications in which the speed attainable by an electronic switch is not essential.

B. Switches used on electronic chips that contain only 12,000 switches are more vulnerable to radiation damage than the switches on Micro-Mechanics’ chip will be.

C. There will be applications for computer chips in environments where the chips may have to survive intense radiation.

D. Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other
components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation.

E. Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
oa is E and can someone explain why not D?

is this weaken question or question about choosing the one that does not strength?
Thanks.
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Re: CR from gmat prep [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2010, 16:02
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Answer is E.
The question is which point will weaken the argument.
B and C can be completely eliminated as they are trying to strengthen the argument. They are advantage to the Micro-Mechanics chip.

Now between A, D and E, point E strongly will be a disadvantage for the Micro-Mechanics chip. If the manufacturers are able to provide the protection against the intense radiation, there will be no need for Micro-mechanics chip. Hence E.

Now why not D - D says some components in computer will be able to survive against the exposure of radiation. What about the other components? If all the components were able to survive against the radiation, then it would have been an apparent advantage for Electronic chips.

Hence answer is not D, but E.
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Re: CR from gmat prep [#permalink] New post 27 Jan 2010, 01:29
lys8207 wrote:
Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly contain millions of electronic switches. Unfortunately, electronic switches that are this small cannot withstand intense radiation. Micro-Mechanics plans to produce a chip that, because it uses only microscopic mechanical switches, will be invulnerable to radiation damage. The switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches and the chip will contain only 12,000 switches.

For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chip as a result of the apparent advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:

A. There will be applications in which the speed attainable by an electronic switch is not essential.

B. Switches used on electronic chips that contain only 12,000 switches are more vulnerable to radiation damage than the switches on Micro-Mechanics’ chip will be.

C. There will be applications for computer chips in environments where the chips may have to survive intense radiation.

D. Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other
components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation.

E. Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
oa is E and can someone explain why not D?

is this weaken question or question about choosing the one that does not strength?
Thanks.


Electronic chip: contains million of electronic switches,cannot stand intense radiation.
New chip(Micro-Mechanics’ chip): slower, contain only 12,000 (microscopic mechanical )switches, more invulnerable to radiation.

Rephrase the Q.: what is the asssumption for the new chip to be sucessful,EXCEPT.

In A, negate the choice, If the slowness is important factor for purchase--> noone buy.
In B, simply said that microscopic mechanical switch is more invulnerable that Elec switch (holding the quantity(12,000) the same)-> must be true to be sucessful.
In C, must hold true. It is the objective of inventing the new chip. If it is not held true, no need to invent then and wont be sucessful.
In D, negate the choice. If D is not hold, then the new chip wont work anyway because of other obstacle (other devices). Then, the new chip wont be successful.
No need to hold E, since the new chip is made to be invulnerable to the intense radiation.

My ans is E
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Re: CR from gmat prep [#permalink] New post 10 Jun 2011, 21:49
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Re: CR from gmat prep [#permalink] New post 13 Jun 2011, 02:16
clean E here,which actually weakens the conclusion.
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Re: CR from gmat prep [#permalink] New post 13 Jun 2011, 04:33
This is wrong. there could be other devices which do not satisfy the below statement...

D. Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other
components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation.
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Re: CR from gmat prep [#permalink] New post 05 Mar 2013, 07:10
amp0201 wrote:
Answer is E.
The question is which point will weaken the argument.
B and C can be completely eliminated as they are trying to strengthen the argument. They are advantage to the Micro-Mechanics chip.

Now between A, D and E, point E strongly will be a disadvantage for the Micro-Mechanics chip. If the manufacturers are able to provide the protection against the intense radiation, there will be no need for Micro-mechanics chip. Hence E.

Now why not D - D says some components in computer will be able to survive against the exposure of radiation. What about the other components? If all the components were able to survive against the radiation, then it would have been an apparent advantage for Electronic chips.

Hence answer is not D, but E.


Does the Gmat CR test answer choices in such cases that do NOTHING to do argument (no affect-doesn't strengthen or weaken it)? I ask because the LSAT considers such choices legitimate. WHat is the likelihood of that on that GMAT? I doubt it's very high

Still can't believe I got this in the OG. This would be considered a hard LSAT LR question
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Last edited by manimgoindowndown on 06 Mar 2013, 05:55, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now [#permalink] New post 05 Mar 2013, 18:22
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lys8207 wrote:
Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly contain millions of electronic switches. Unfortunately, electronic switches that are this small cannot withstand intense radiation. Micro-Mechanics plans to produce a chip that, because it uses only microscopic mechanical switches, will be invulnerable to radiation damage. The switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches and the chip will contain only 12,000 switches.

For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chip as a result of the apparent advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:

A. There will be applications in which the speed attainable by an electronic switch is not essential.

B. Switches used on electronic chips that contain only 12,000 switches are more vulnerable to radiation damage than the switches on Micro-Mechanics’ chip will be.

C. There will be applications for computer chips in environments where the chips may have to survive intense radiation.

D. Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other
components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation.

E. Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
oa is E and can someone explain why not D?

is this weaken question or question about choosing the one that does not strength?
Thanks.


Hi,

I see some great attempts above on the explanations for different answer choices. However, I think we need a better understanding of this question. This is one of those Official questions, which defy any categorization and thus tries to challenge the real understanding of the basic concepts.

Let's begin with the passage.

Understanding the Passage:

1. Electronic computer chips now regularly contain millions of electronic switches.
2. Electronic switches that are this small cannot withstand intense radiation.
3. Microscopic mechanical switches, still to be introduced, will be invulnerable to radiation damage.
4. The MM (Micro Mechanical) switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches
5. The MM chip will contain only 12,000 switches (as compared to millions of electronic switches)

So, we have one advantage of MM switches over electronic switches: MM switches are invulnerable to radiation unlike electronic switches
Also, we have one disadvatange of MM switches over electronic switches: MM switches are slower than electronic switches
In addition, there is one more different between the two: There can be millions of electronic switches on a chip whereas there can only be 12000 mechanical switches on a chip.

Now, let's understand the question stem:

Understanding the Question Stem:

For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chip as a result of the apparent advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:

It means we have to find an option statement which does not have to be true for there to be a market for Micro-mechanics chip. So, this is a question where we should expect four strengtheners and one non-strengthener (A non-strengthener may have no impact on the conclusion or it may weaken the conclusion).

Since this an "EXCEPT" question type where we expect to find four strengtheners, there is no point prethinking the correct answer choice (The correct answer choice will either have no impact or weaken the conclusion). Let's directly look at the option statements:

Analysis of Option Statements:

A. There will be applications in which the speed attainable by an electronic switch is not essential. - This option takes care of the disadvantage of MM switches. This option statement basically says that we can have speeds slower than attained by electronic switches - this opens up the possibility of the market for MM switches, which have slower speeds than electronic switches. This is a VALID STRENGTHENER.

B. Switches used on electronic chips that contain only 12,000 switches are more vulnerable to radiation damage than the switches on Micro-Mechanics’ chip will be. - This option statement tries to make a like-comparison between chips based on electronic switches and chips based on MM switches. Since MM switches can have only 12000 MM switches, it makes a comparison between MM chips and electronic chips with 12000 switches and says that MM chips have an advantage there due to their radiation-resistance. This is a VALID STRENGTHENER.

C. There will be applications for computer chips in environments where the chips may have to survive intense radiation. - This says that there are applications where intense radiations need to be survived through. We are given that MM switches do much better job in such situations than electronic switches. Therefore, this option also strengthens that there will exist a market for MM chips or switches. This is a VALID STRENGTHENER.

D. Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation. - This is actually a necessary condition for there to be a market for MM chips. Wondering why? The reason is that if there is no device whose components can work after exposure to radiation, then even if we replace electronic switches with MM switches, the device will not work (because other components are not working). In such a case, the market for MM switches will not exist. Therefore, this statement is not only a strengthener but also a necessary condition (or an assumption).

E. Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary. - This means that the only advantage MM switches had over electronic switches is not an advantage actually because manufacturers can protect electronic switches, wherever necessary. This statement actually weakens the statement that there will be a market for MM chips. This statement is a WEAKENER. Therefore , CORRECT.


Some of us may have doubts whether the correct choice must be weakener with the given question stem. The answer is No. It may have been some arbitrary statement which does not impact the conclusion. However, GMAT generally plays safe in many scenarios - In this case also, by providing a weakener, it makes sure that there are no doubts about the correct answer choice.

Hope this helps :)

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now [#permalink] New post 06 Mar 2013, 08:05
e-gmat that was an excellent response!

I have a few questions though. What if the question stem read each of the following would be false except (this is acceptable on the lsat)
how would negating the answer choices as you did with D change what we're looking for? Would we be looking for a strengtherner instead?

Another question I would ask is what are some modifiers and their negations? For the following

ALL X
SOME X
NONE X
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now [#permalink] New post 06 Mar 2013, 10:02
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manimgoindowndown wrote:
e-gmat that was an excellent response!

I have a few questions though. What if the question stem read each of the following would be false except (this is acceptable on the lsat)
how would negating the answer choices as you did with D change what we're looking for? Would we be looking for a strengtherner instead?

Another question I would ask is what are some modifiers and their negations? For the following

ALL X
SOME X
NONE X


Hi,

Thanks for the compliment.

If the question stem had asked that "Each of the following would have to be false EXCEPT", then I would expect 4 weakeners and 1 non-weakener.

Just like in the case non-strengthener, a non-weakener can either strengthen the conclusion or have no impact. So, in such a question, you should not compulsorily look for a strengthener, a random statement having no impact on the conclusion would be a valid answer choice.

Negation of All X
- Not All X
- Atleast one not X
- Some not X

Negation of Some X
- No X
- X does not exist
- Not even a single X

Negation of None X
- At least one X
- Some X

Negation and Negation test is covered in detail in e-GMAT "Assumption" Concept. Even though this concept is not part of the free trial, there are a good number of concepts as part of free trial, both in CR and SC. You can register for free at http://www.e-gmat.com

Thanks :)
Chiranjeev
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now [#permalink] New post 06 Mar 2013, 10:10
Expert's post
manimgoindowndown wrote:
e-gmat that was an excellent response!

I have a few questions though. What if the question stem read each of the following would be false except (this is acceptable on the lsat)
how would negating the answer choices as you did with D change what we're looking for? Would we be looking for a strengtherner instead?

Another question I would ask is what are some modifiers and their negations? For the following

ALL X
SOME X
NONE X


By the way, here's an article on negation. I forgot to mention in the last post:

article-what-and-how-to-negate-4-exercise-questions-138510.html

Thanks :)
Chiranjeev
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2014, 05:10
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