Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened

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08 Jun 2013, 00:40
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Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.
A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened g [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2013, 01:16
emmak wrote:
Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.
A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s

Why do we need past perfect in had frightened as in B. I think simple past + present perfect should do as in A. Also, the appositive Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy is correctly expressed in A.

Need help here.
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened g [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2013, 09:55
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emmak wrote:
Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.
A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s

I somehow feel that the answer should be A
B ends with to guide Italy, with Europe’s which is wrong
A ends with to guide Italy, Europe’s here Europe's third largets economy correctly modifies Italy ...
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened g [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2013, 10:43
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emmak wrote:
Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.
A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s

There are two things that needs to be addressed to correct the given sentense - One of them is the "had frightened" change pointed out above, while the other required change is in the second part of the argument "the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition " - THis has needs to be removed as well!! So if you see options A & B, B correctly removes it. The prime Minister has obviously already formed the government & if we have the word "has" it changes the meaning to say that he "just formed it now".

I hope this helps! I got it as Option A myself but on closer inspection I go with B !
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2013, 23:51
A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
has finally formed - out
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s
government uniting > NO, should be government that united / government to unite which is in D and E
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
same as A
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
formed and including is not correct
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s
finally formed and includes is correct construction. Option E is correct

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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
has finally formed - out
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s
government uniting > NO, should be government that united / government to unite which is in D and E
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
same as A
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
formed and including is not correct
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s
finally formed and includes is correct construction. Option E is correct

A. Yes. Has finally formed is wrong usage. Since the action occurred in the past and also since we need to show the verb sequencing we should use past perfect tense.
B. this option uses past perfect tense correctly. And there is nothing wrong with government uniting... split the sentence into clauses.
the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy

in the above sentence subject is the new Italian Prime Minister and verb is formed. The rest of the sentence after government is verb-ing modifier. Also, both uniting and including must be parallel to each other. Hence this option is correct.

C. Wrong tense usage as in A.

D. No. You have identified the wrong parallel lists. Formed and united are NOT the intended parallel lists. The actual list is Unite and Include. In this option they are not parallel - United and including.

E. Wrong tense usage. We need past perfect tense to show the sequence of the events. If both the verbs are in past tense the they seem to have occurred at the same time. But that is not possible. Hence the action that occurred earlier should be in past perfect tense. Also, "to unite" is NOT parallel to "including". Hence, wrong answer.
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2013, 19:42
aakrity wrote:
A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
has finally formed - out
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s
government uniting > NO, should be government that united / government to unite which is in D and E
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
same as A
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
formed and including is not correct
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s
finally formed and includes is correct construction. Option E is correct

A. Yes. Has finally formed is wrong usage. Since the action occurred in the past and also since we need to show the verb sequencing we should use past perfect tense.
B. this option uses past perfect tense correctly. And there is nothing wrong with government uniting... split the sentence into clauses.
the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy

in the above sentence subject is the new Italian Prime Minister and verb is formed. The rest of the sentence after government is verb-ing modifier. Also, both uniting and including must be parallel to each other. Hence this option is correct.

C. Wrong tense usage as in A.

D. No. You have identified the wrong parallel lists. Formed and united are NOT the intended parallel lists. The actual list is Unite and Include. In this option they are not parallel - United and including.

E. Wrong tense usage. We need past perfect tense to show the sequence of the events. If both the verbs are in past tense the they seem to have occurred at the same time. But that is not possible. Hence the action that occurred earlier should be in past perfect tense. Also, "to unite" is NOT parallel to "including". Hence, wrong answer.

Can u please help me in understanding the use of 'with Europe's largest economy' in (B). It doesn't make any sense to me.
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2013, 06:17
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mohnish104 wrote:
aakrity wrote:
A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
has finally formed - out
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s
government uniting > NO, should be government that united / government to unite which is in D and E
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
same as A
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
formed and including is not correct
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s
finally formed and includes is correct construction. Option E is correct

A. Yes. Has finally formed is wrong usage. Since the action occurred in the past and also since we need to show the verb sequencing we should use past perfect tense.
B. this option uses past perfect tense correctly. And there is nothing wrong with government uniting... split the sentence into clauses.
the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy

in the above sentence subject is the new Italian Prime Minister and verb is formed. The rest of the sentence after government is verb-ing modifier. Also, both uniting and including must be parallel to each other. Hence this option is correct.

C. Wrong tense usage as in A.

D. No. You have identified the wrong parallel lists. Formed and united are NOT the intended parallel lists. The actual list is Unite and Include. In this option they are not parallel - United and including.

E. Wrong tense usage. We need past perfect tense to show the sequence of the events. If both the verbs are in past tense the they seem to have occurred at the same time. But that is not possible. Hence the action that occurred earlier should be in past perfect tense. Also, "to unite" is NOT parallel to "including". Hence, wrong answer.

Can u please help me in understanding the use of 'with Europe's largest economy' in (B). It doesn't make any sense to me.

Europe's largest economy can only modify another economy, say Italy's economy and not the country itself. So we need a preposition "with" so that the prepositional phrase can describe the country. Hope I made my point clear
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2014, 16:40
Need some discussion as to why "with" in the option B is correct ...
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2014, 09:50
Why is B correct again?

– to guide Italy, with Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2014, 00:46
amenon55 wrote:
Why is B correct again?

– to guide Italy, with Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.

Italy in not equal to Economy

It is a country. It's economy is the third largest in Europe. Also notice,

B, C, D, & E all share this same meaning is some form or the other.
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2014, 07:17
I concur with ankurgupta03, the use of "with" is incorrect. "With" in such situations indicates sense of possession.

Literally, the sentence means "the rare coalition coalition government will guide Italy with Europe’s largest economy, i.e Italy + Europe's largest economy, out of stagnation."

Thus, it doesn't seem to mean the right thing.

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Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2014, 23:40
my 2 cents on usage of 'with' in correct option B: 'with' is a part of noun phrase which is acting as a noun modifier for noun 'Italy' just preceding it before comma. So 'with Europe's third-largest economy' acts as a noun modifier as would a noun modifier like 'Europe's third-largest economy' acts.
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2014, 19:33
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emmak wrote:
Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.
A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s

Here is the skeleton of option (A) with details removed:

Ending a stalemate that frightened leaders, Enrico has formed a rare coalition government that united ... – and included ... – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.

There are two events:
Govt formed

Since leaders were frightened before the Govt was formed, we can express the events in two ways:

Option (A) - Ending a stalemate that frightened (simple past) leaders, Enrico has formed (present perfect) a rare coalition government...
We don't know whether Enrico has just formed the Govt or did he form it some time back. There is no need to assume that he formed it some time back and hence use of present perfect may not be incorrect. But the problem with option (A) is that 'united' and 'included' use past tense. In that case, the use of present perfect for forming the Govt is incorrect. The formation of the Govt united liberals and conservatives and included women and non white ministers. Hence, 'uniting' and 'including' did not happen before the Govt was formed.

Option (B) - Ending a stalemate that had frightened (past perfect) leaders, Enrico formed (simple past) a rare coalition government...
Here, the tenses are correct. Past perfect for 'Leaders frightened' and simple past for 'Govt formed'.

As for the use of 'with'.

Italy here is referring to the country. The country has Europe's third largest economy.

Hence the use of both these is correct:
... to guide Italy, with Europe's third largest economy, out of stagnation.
... to guide Italy, which has Europe's third largest economy, out of stagnation.

Note that we could also refer to Italy, Europe's third largest economy. We could say that Italy is Europe's third largest economy as done in option (A). That is correct too. But option (A) has other errors.
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Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199 Veritas Prep Reviews Intern Joined: 22 Jun 2013 Posts: 45 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 43 [1] , given: 132 Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink] ### Show Tags 11 Aug 2014, 23:35 1 This post received KUDOS Can you plz tell what is wrong in Option D please. Thanks a lot! VeritasPrepKarishma wrote: emmak wrote: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation. A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s Here is the skeleton of option (A) with details removed: Ending a stalemate that frightened leaders, Enrico has formed a rare coalition government that united ... – and included ... – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation. There are two events: Leaders frightened Govt formed Since leaders were frightened before the Govt was formed, we can express the events in two ways: Option (A) - Ending a stalemate that frightened (simple past) leaders, Enrico has formed (present perfect) a rare coalition government... We don't know whether Enrico has just formed the Govt or did he form it some time back. There is no need to assume that he formed it some time back and hence use of present perfect may not be incorrect. But the problem with option (A) is that 'united' and 'included' use past tense. In that case, the use of present perfect for forming the Govt is incorrect. The formation of the Govt united liberals and conservatives and included women and non white ministers. Hence, 'uniting' and 'including' did not happen before the Govt was formed. Option (B) - Ending a stalemate that had frightened (past perfect) leaders, Enrico formed (simple past) a rare coalition government... Here, the tenses are correct. Past perfect for 'Leaders frightened' and simple past for 'Govt formed'. As for the use of 'with'. Italy here is referring to the country. The country has Europe's third largest economy. Hence the use of both these is correct: ... to guide Italy, with Europe's third largest economy, out of stagnation. ... to guide Italy, which has Europe's third largest economy, out of stagnation. Note that we could also refer to Italy, Europe's third largest economy. We could say that Italy is Europe's third largest economy as done in option (A). That is correct too. But option (A) has other errors. Director Joined: 05 Sep 2010 Posts: 854 Followers: 86 Kudos [?]: 241 [1] , given: 61 Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink] ### Show Tags 31 Aug 2014, 08:09 1 This post received KUDOS Good Day karishma thanks for the explanation please tell me further something about the usage of dashes here . can dashes include verb "included" as is done in A? i believe that dashes are used to put an aside,information that has a bit of "EMPHASIS" or "irony" in nature. how do i reconcile this? Also please tell me that if dashes include "AND" then do we need to look for parallelism as well across "AND"? Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor Joined: 16 Oct 2010 Posts: 7119 Location: Pune, India Followers: 2130 Kudos [?]: 13629 [1] , given: 222 Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink] ### Show Tags 01 Sep 2014, 20:11 1 This post received KUDOS Expert's post aditya8062 wrote: Good Day karishma thanks for the explanation please tell me further something about the usage of dashes here . can dashes include verb "included" as is done in A? i believe that dashes are used to put an aside,information that has a bit of "EMPHASIS" or "irony" in nature. how do i reconcile this? Also please tell me that if dashes include "AND" then do we need to look for parallelism as well across "AND"? Check this link to read up on usage of dashes: http://www.grammarbook.com/punctuation/dashes.asp "united" and "included" need to use the same tense because they both present parallel ideas: - united liberals and conservatives - included a record number of women... The Govt united ... and included ... _________________ Karishma Veritas Prep | GMAT Instructor My Blog Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for$199

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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2014, 22:30
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Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.
A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s (that united # and included --> not parallel)
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s (uniting and including are parallel --> the OA)
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s (not parallel)
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s (not parallel)
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s (not parallel)

--> B is OA
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2014, 18:17
Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.

A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s (Wrong: Has finaly Formed)

B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s (wrong: with Europe's & "Uniting liberals....." is modifying "government" but actual meaning of the sentence is "X formed Y, uniting A&B". so comma is mandatory)

C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s (Wrong: Had been frightening... action happening the past while someother action was happening... Since there is no 2nd action)

D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s (Correct: since "-" can be considered any thing such as comma, colon & hipen, Including need not to be parllel with united)

E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s(Wrong: Inludes, stating general fact in simple present tense, which is meaningless)
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2016, 15:44
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened   [#permalink] 04 Apr 2016, 15:44

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