1. Environmental organizations want to preserve the land surrounding the Wilgrinn Wilderness Area from residential development. They plan to do this by purchasing that land from the farmers who own it. That plan is ill-conceived: if the farmers did sell their land, they would sell it to the highest bidder, and developers would outbid any other bidders. On the other hand, these farmers will never actually sell any of the land, provided that farming it remains viable. But farming will not remain viable if the farms are left unmodernized, and most of the farmers lack the financial resources modernization requires. And that is exactly why a more sensible preservation strategy would be to assist the farmers to modernize their farms to the extent needed to maintain viability.
In the argument as a whole, the two boldface proportions play which of the following roles?
A. The first presents a goal that the argument rejects as ill-conceived; the second is evidence that is presented as grounds for that rejection.
B. The first presents a goal that the argument concludes cannot be attained; the second is a reason offered in support of that conclusion.
C. The first presents a goal that the argument concludes can be attained; the second is a judgment disputing that conclusion.
D. The first presents a goal, strategies for achieving which are being evaluated in the argument; the second is a judgment providing a basis for the argumentÂ¡Â¯s advocacy of a particular strategy.
E. The first presents a goal that the argument endorses; the second presents a situation that the argument contends must be changed if that goal is to be met in the foreseeable future.
2. Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost always have their appendix removed. The appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary ones than before, since________________
A: the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis invariably having medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis
B: the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis to someone who does not, in fact, have it
C:all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact, have appendicitis
D:every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis
3. A significant number of complex repair jobs carried out by Ace Repairs have to be reworked under the companyÂ¡Â¯s warranty. The reworked jobs are invariably satisfactory. When initial repairs are inadequate, therefore, it is not because the mechanics lack competence; rather, there is clearly a level of focused concentration that complex repairs require that is elicited more reliably by rework jobs than by first-time jobs.
The argument above assumes which of the following?
A. There is no systematic difference in membership between the group of mechanics who do first-time jobs and the group of those who do rework jobs.
B. There is no company that successfully competes with Ace Repairs for complex repair jobs.
C. Ace RepairsÂ¡Â¯ warranty is good on first-time jobs but does not cover rework jobs.
D. Ace Repairs does not in any way penalize mechanics who have worked on complex repair jobs that later had to be reworked.
E. There is no category of repair jobs in which Ace Repairs invariably carries out first-time jobs satisfactorily.
4. Mayor: Migrating shorebirds stop at our beach just to feed on horseshoe-crab eggs, a phenomenon that attracts tourists. To bring more tourists, the town council plans to undertake a beach reclamation project to double the area available to crabs for nesting.
Birdwatcher: Without a high density of crabs on a beach, migrating shorebirds will go hungry because shorebirds only eat eggs that a crab happens to uncover when it is digging its own nest.
Which of the following, if true, would provide the mayor with the strongest counter to the birdwatcherÂ¡Â¯s objection?
A. Every year a certain percentage of crabs are caught by fishermen as bait for eel traps.
B. Horseshoe crabs are so prolific that given favorable circumstances their numbers increase rapidly.
C. On average, tourists who come to the town in order to watch birds spend more money there than tourists who come for other purposes.
D. The additional land made available by the reclamation project will give migrating shorebirds more space.
E. Some of the migrating shorebirds make only one stop during their migration form South America to Canada.
5. A mosquito bite can transmit to a person the parasite that causes malaria, and the use of mosquito nets over childrenÂ¡Â¯s beds can significantly reduce the incidence of malarial infection for children in areas where malaria is common. Yet public health officials are reluctant to recommend the use of mosquito nets over childrenÂ¡Â¯s beds in such areas.
Which of the following, if true, would provide the strongest grounds for the public health officialsÂ¡Â¯ reluctance?
A. Early exposure to malaria increases the bodyÂ¡Â¯s resistance to it and results in a lesser likelihood of severe life-threatening episodes of malaria.
B. Mosquito bites can transmit to people diseases other than malaria.
C. Mosquito nets provide protection from some insect pests other than mosquitoes.
D. Although there are vaccines available for many childhood diseases, no vaccine has been developed that is effective against malaria.
E. The pesticides that are most effective against mosquitoes in regions where malaria
is common have significant detrimental effects on human health.
6. Criminologist: Some legislators advocate mandating a sentence of life in prison for anyone who, having twice served sentences for serious crimes, is subsequently convicted of a third serious crime. These legislators argue that such a policy would reduce crime dramatically, since it would take people with a proven tendency to commit crimes off the streets permanently. What this reasoning overlooks, however, is that people old enough to have served two prison sentences for serious crimes rarely commit more than one subsequent crime. Filling our prisons with such individuals would have exactly the opposite of the desired effect, since it would limit our ability to incarcerate younger
criminals, who commit a far greater proportion of serious crimes.
In the argument as a whole, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?
A. The first is a conclusion that the argument as a whole seeks to refute; the second is a claim that has been advanced in support of that conclusion.
B. The first is a conclusion that the argument as a whole seeks to refute; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
C. The first is the main conclusion of the argument; the second is an objection that has been raised against that conclusion.
D. The first is the main conclusion of the argument; the second is a prediction made on the basis of that conclusion.
E. The first is a generalization about the likely effect of a policy under consideration in the argument; the second points out a group of exceptional cases to which that generalization does not apply.
7. Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams.
Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.