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Excavations in the summer of 2008 at the sites of Hohle Fels

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Excavations in the summer of 2008 at the sites of Hohle Fels [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2012, 23:10
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Difficulty:

  65% (hard)

Question Stats:

57% (02:40) correct 43% (01:51) wrong based on 281 sessions

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Excavations in the summer of 2008 at the sites of Hohle Fels and Vogelherd revealed nearly a complete paleolithic ivory bone flute. This flute is by far the most complete of all of the musical instruments thus far recovered from the caves of Swabia. These finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe, more than 35,000 calendar years ago.

Because the discovered ivory bone flute has 5 holes in it, enough to play 5 notes from the 7-note diatonic scale, musicologists believe that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it became popular during the Renaissance period in Western Europe.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A)

Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Swabian cavemen.

(B)

The mammoth tusk bone used to make the Swabian flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

(C)

No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found in the Swabian cave.

(D)

Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.

(E)

The flute was made from a mammoth bone and the site at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of wooly mammoths.

--------------
Your thoughts please on this question.
Thanks.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Excavations in the summer of 2008 at the sites of Hohle [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2012, 11:47
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In summary:
Flute found in a really old site from 35K ago. It had 5 holes in it. To play the the diatonic scale you need at least five holes. So, diatonic scale is 35K old.

Problem:
The conclusion lacks enough support/evidence.

A- Wrong. Knowing that flutes are the only instrument made by S is good but does not help the conclusion. It is doubtful to conclude that because they only made flutes, the flute found was not placed on site by other peoples of more recent generations who also made flutes. Basically we can't infer that the flute found was made by S people.
B-YES. For a couple of reasons: 1) removes the doubt I mentioned in A 2) Apparently, simply having 5 holes does not necessarily mean that the instrument is capable of playing the diatonic scale. This evidence check marks this requirement.
C-Wrong. Same reason as in A. Finding the instrument at a place of known time is no guarantee for the origin of that instrument.
D-Wrong. We don't care if it is the simplest. We care about the originating time of the diatonic scale.
E-Wrong. This only gives supporting information that in fact the flute was made out of mammoth bone. It does not help the conclusion of finding the age of diatonic scale.
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Re: Excavations in the summer of 2008 at the sites of Hohle Fels [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2013, 08:18
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Excavations in the summer of 2008 at the sites of Hohle Fels [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2015, 08:49
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
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Re: Excavations in the summer of 2008 at the sites of Hohle Fels [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2016, 16:25
elegan wrote:
Excavations in the summer of 2008 at the sites of Hohle Fels and Vogelherd revealed nearly a complete paleolithic ivory bone flute. This flute is by far the most complete of all of the musical instruments thus far recovered from the caves of Swabia. These finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe, more than 35,000 calendar years ago.

Because the discovered ivory bone flute has 5 holes in it, enough to play 5 notes from the 7-note diatonic scale, musicologists believe that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it became popular during the Renaissance period in Western Europe.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A)

Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Swabian cavemen.

(B)

The mammoth tusk bone used to make the Swabian flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

(C)

No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found in the Swabian cave.

(D)

Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.

(E)

The flute was made from a mammoth bone and the site at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of wooly mammoths.

--------------
Your thoughts please on this question.
Thanks.


The argument talks about 2 things in the premise:
1. The bone belonging to a certain period 35k yrs
2. The bone having 5 holes in it which are sufficient enough to play the 5 notes of a diatonic scale

On the basis of these 2 facts the author draws the conclusion that the diatonic scale indeed is 35k years old. To strengthen this conclusion think what information can you provide to solidify the fact that the diatonic scale belonged to the same period.

Prethinking: The only loophole in the argument is the fact that we do not know for sure if the bone discovered was indeed part of a diatonic scale. May be the scale did not play without all 7 holes. So, if we can provide evidence to strengthen the fact that the bone indeed was a diatonic scale then the gaps in the logic will be plugged.

A. We are not concerned if Swabians made other instruments or not.
B. Exactly what we need
C. Even if no instrument using a diatonic scale has been found doesn't mean that the bone discovered in the cave is a diaton ic scale and hence 35k yrs older.
D. Irrelevant
E. Proves only that the flute was made from mammoths bone and I can over assume that the age of the flute will be the same as the age of mammoth. However provides no support if the flute was indeed a diatonic scale.
Re: Excavations in the summer of 2008 at the sites of Hohle Fels   [#permalink] 04 Apr 2016, 16:25
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Excavations in the summer of 2008 at the sites of Hohle Fels

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