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Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in eastern

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Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in eastern [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2013, 04:02
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Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in eastern Pakistan say the discovery of inscribed shards dating to circa 2800 - 2600 B.C. indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of inscribed seals impressed into clay for marking ownership, and the standardization of weights for trade or taxation occured many decades, if not centuries, earlier than was previously beliieved.

a) indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of
b) indicate the the development of a Harappan writing system, using
c) indicates that their delevelopment of a Harappan writing system, using
d) indicates the development of a Harappan writing system, their use of
e) indicates that the development of a Harappan writing system, the use of

This question isn't about the answer (which I have shared in the OA) but is about the sentence structure: "excavators... say the discovery"

I thought that a reporting verb (say) must always be followed by "that"? When can that be omitted and when is it mandatory? Thanks!
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Re: Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2013, 07:14
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Just a few thoughts:-

You can drop "that" when it introduces or works as the direct object, but you can't do it if it works as the subject of the verb.

I thought (that) I was too shy
In this case, "I" is the subject of "thought", while "that" is a conjunction that introduces a subordinate clause that works as the direct object of the verb.
You can drop "that".

The car (that) I bought is red
In this sentence, we have a relative clause in which "I" is the subject of "bought", and "that" is a relative pronoun that is the direct object of bought. Therefore, you can drop it too.

The car that is parked outside is red.
In this case, there is another relative clause, but "that" works as the subject of "is", so you can't drop it.
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Re: Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2013, 05:07
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Hi tcsing,

I can understand your concern. I also used to wonder why that is not followed by this reporting word.

Well it is advisable to use a reporting word after say, not mandatory though. An answer choice would not be incorrect just because it is not using 'that' after a reporting verb i.e. it must be having other apparent errors.

The question that you have posted is and official one, so you can take it for granted the usage of say is correct as it is not in the underlined part.

To sum up if you have two grammatically and contextually correct answer choices, the only difference is that one contains "that" after a reporting verb another doesn't then choose the one with "that"

The below usages of the verb say are totally correct.

Senators say nursing home rule is not followed
Some teachers say MPS make-up class guidelines are not followed
Apple now says it is looking into how users can reset their account passwords to ensure that their data is protected

to answer the question, it tests parallel structure

the discovery.... indicates that the development, the use of ...and the standardization of...occurred earlier than was prev believed
Correct Answer -- (C)

Hope it helps,

Vercules
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Re: Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2013, 09:05
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Hi all,

When "that" is used to connect an IC with a DC, then it is not necessary to explicitly write "that" between the two clauses.
You can read the following the article to know more about various usages of "that":

learn-how-that-can-help-you-demystify-a-long-sentence-138358.html

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2013, 05:50
Vercules wrote:
Hi tcsing,

I can understand your concern. I also used to wonder why that is not followed by this reporting word.

Well it is advisable to use a reporting word after say, not mandatory though. An answer choice would not be incorrect just because it is not using 'that' after a reporting verb i.e. it must be having other apparent errors.

The question that you have posted is and official one, so you can take it for granted the usage of say is correct as it is not in the underlined part.

To sum up if you have two grammatically and contextually correct answer choices, the only difference is that one contains "that" after a reporting verb another doesn't then choose the one with "that"

The below usages of the verb say are totally correct.

Senators say nursing home rule is not followed
Some teachers say MPS make-up class guidelines are not followed
Apple now says it is looking into how users can reset their account passwords to ensure that their data is protected

to answer the question, it tests parallel structure

the discovery.... indicates that the development, the use of ...and the standardization of...occurred earlier than was prev believed
Correct Answer -- (C)

Hope it helps,

Vercules


Thanks, that helps to clarify :)
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Re: Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2013, 06:17
Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in eastern Pakistan say the discovery of inscribed shards dating to circa 2800 - 2600 B.C. indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of inscribed seals impressed into clay for marking ownership, and the standardization of weights for trade or taxation occured many decades, if not centuries, earlier than was previously beliieved.

a) indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of
b) indicate the the development of a Harappan writing system, using
c) indicates that their delevelopment of a Harappan writing system, using
d) indicates the development of a Harappan writing system, their use of
e) indicates that the development of a Harappan writing system, the use of CORRECT
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Re: Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in [#permalink] New post 20 Jan 2013, 19:34
Thanks e-GMAT, just to let u know, I love your articles, they're very helpfu!
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Re: Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in [#permalink] New post 20 Jan 2013, 20:17
tcsing wrote:
Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in eastern Pakistan say the discovery of inscribed shards dating to circa 2800 - 2600 B.C. indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of inscribed seals impressed into clay for marking ownership, and the standardization of weights for trade or taxation occured many decades, if not centuries, earlier than was previously beliieved.

a) indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of
b) indicate the the development of a Harappan writing system, using
c) indicates that their delevelopment of a Harappan writing system, using
d) indicates the development of a Harappan writing system, their use of
e) indicates that the development of a Harappan writing system, the use of

This question isn't about the answer (which I have shared in the OA) but is about the sentence structure: "excavators... say the discovery"

I thought that a reporting verb (say) must always be followed by "that"? When can that be omitted and when is it mandatory? Thanks!



If option "c" could be read as "indicates that the development...", then C fits the best. Or I would go with "E" ( very much aware it is not the best one )
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Re: Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in [#permalink] New post 20 Jan 2013, 23:45
tcsing wrote:
Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in eastern Pakistan say the discovery of inscribed shards dating to circa 2800 - 2600 B.C. indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of inscribed seals impressed into clay for marking ownership, and the standardization of weights for trade or taxation occured many decades, if not centuries, earlier than was previously beliieved.

a) indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of
b) indicate the the development of a Harappan writing system, using
c) indicates that their delevelopment of a Harappan writing system, using
d) indicates the development of a Harappan writing system, their use of
e) indicates that the development of a Harappan writing system, the use of

This question isn't about the answer (which I have shared in the OA) but is about the sentence structure: "excavators... say the discovery"

I thought that a reporting verb (say) must always be followed by "that"? When can that be omitted and when is it mandatory? Thanks!


it's a 2:3 split,"indicate should modify "Indus valley" which is singular, so we should use singular verb "indicates.So, A,B are out and in C and D the development is "Indus valley " development so we should usage of "their" is wrong.Finally answer is E.
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Re: Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in eastern [#permalink] New post 05 Jan 2014, 10:55
tcsing wrote:
Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in eastern Pakistan say the discovery of inscribed shards dating to circa 2800 - 2600 B.C. indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of inscribed seals impressed into clay for marking ownership, and the standardization of weights for trade or taxation occured many decades, if not centuries, earlier than was previously beliieved.

a) indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of
b) indicate the the development of a Harappan writing system, using
c) indicates that their delevelopment of a Harappan writing system, using
d) indicates the development of a Harappan writing system, their use of
e) indicates that the development of a Harappan writing system, the use of

This question isn't about the answer (which I have shared in the OA) but is about the sentence structure: "excavators... say the discovery"

I thought that a reporting verb (say) must always be followed by "that"? When can that be omitted and when is it mandatory? Thanks!



subject is discovery, so verb needs to be singular. Thus, A/B gone.

C) "their" makes no sense in the context, we're not refering to someone specific with "their", so C is wrong
D) again with "their", there's no need for their especially considering the following words have "the", thus their is not parallel
E) Correct use of "the", this makes the underlined portion parallel to what is said later on
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Re: Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in [#permalink] New post 05 Jan 2014, 11:03
pavanpaone wrote:
tcsing wrote:
Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in eastern Pakistan say the discovery of inscribed shards dating to circa 2800 - 2600 B.C. indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of inscribed seals impressed into clay for marking ownership, and the standardization of weights for trade or taxation occured many decades, if not centuries, earlier than was previously beliieved.

a) indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of
b) indicate the the development of a Harappan writing system, using
c) indicates that their delevelopment of a Harappan writing system, using
d) indicates the development of a Harappan writing system, their use of
e) indicates that the development of a Harappan writing system, the use of

This question isn't about the answer (which I have shared in the OA) but is about the sentence structure: "excavators... say the discovery"

I thought that a reporting verb (say) must always be followed by "that"? When can that be omitted and when is it mandatory? Thanks!


it's a 2:3 split,"indicate should modify "Indus valley" which is singular, so we should use singular verb "indicates.So, A,B are out and in C and D the development is "Indus valley " development so we should usage of "their" is wrong.Finally answer is E.


No, the subject is "discovery", not indus valley. Indus valley simply describes the excavators, and excavators already has its own verb (say), so you need not worry about excavators nor indus valley. Sure, this process worked for you this time, but if we would've had a plural word after excavators, you'd get the wrong answer. So be careful and methodical when trying to find the correct subject to connect a verb to.
Re: Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in   [#permalink] 05 Jan 2014, 11:03
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