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# Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a

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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2009, 03:55
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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year. (A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of (B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business (C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of (D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business (E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business Hi everyone. I was working the 1000 sc through and found unclear for me question. Can u help me please. What is the subject for the second sentence? (which cost business....) I think it is a USE ... however in B (the right answer the subject is plural, COST) Tnank you for any help. [Reveal] Spoiler: OA _________________ The greatest pleasure in life is doing what people say you cannot do... If you have any questions you can ask an expert New! Director Joined: 20 Sep 2006 Posts: 658 Followers: 2 Kudos [?]: 111 [1] , given: 7 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink] ### Show Tags 16 Oct 2009, 05:25 1 This post received KUDOS Ayrish wrote: Hi everyone. I was working the 1000 sc through and found unclear for me question. Can u help me please. What is the subject for the second sentence? (which cost business....) 289. Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than$100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of
(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business
(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business

I think it is a USE ...
however in B (the right answer the subject is plural, COST)

Tnank you for any help.

You need an adverbial modifier (significantly compounding) so cancel out choices D and E.
"which" is refering to plural subject - the effects of drug and alcohol abuse
In A: a cost to business of is weird and unidiomatic.
C again has a modifier issues.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2010, 05:01
Ayrish wrote:
Hi everyone.
I was working the 1000 sc through and found unclear for me question. Can u help me please. What is the subject for the second sentence? (which cost business....)

289. Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year. (A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of (B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business (C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of (D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business (E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business I think it is a USE ... however in B (the right answer the subject is plural, COST) Tnank you for any help. B is correct.... Explanation: D and E are out as you need an adverb for sure.... you need 'which' as the second clause is modify the first clause..... hence C is out.. between A and B.. cost would be preferred as a verb than a noun (currently in A) Also as asked by you the subject of the clause is 'the effects of drug and alcohol abuse' which is plural... and hence cost is perfect.... _________________ Cheers! JT........... If u like my post..... payback in Kudos!! |Do not post questions with OA|Please underline your SC questions while posting|Try posting the explanation along with your answer choice| |For CR refer Powerscore CR Bible|For SC refer Manhattan SC Guide| ~~Better Burn Out... Than Fade Away~~ Manager Joined: 19 Dec 2010 Posts: 145 Followers: 2 Kudos [?]: 29 [0], given: 12 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink] ### Show Tags 25 Mar 2011, 02:27 B, this one should have the word businesses in it, shouldn't it? Retired Moderator Status: 2000 posts! I don't know whether I should feel great or sad about it! LOL Joined: 04 Oct 2009 Posts: 1712 Location: Peru Schools: Harvard, Stanford, Wharton, MIT & HKS (Government) WE 1: Economic research WE 2: Banking WE 3: Government: Foreign Trade and SMEs Followers: 97 Kudos [?]: 918 [0], given: 109 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink] ### Show Tags 25 Mar 2011, 09:41 +1 B However, I think that the verb "cost" should be "costS" because it refers to abuse. "Which" refers to the noun which is next to it. Or could it refer to a noun phrase ("the effects of drug and alcohol abuse")? Thanks! _________________ "Life’s battle doesn’t always go to stronger or faster men; but sooner or later the man who wins is the one who thinks he can." My Integrated Reasoning Logbook / Diary: http://gmatclub.com/forum/my-ir-logbook-diary-133264.html GMAT Club Premium Membership - big benefits and savings Manager Joined: 08 Jun 2010 Posts: 172 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 29 [0], given: 15 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink] ### Show Tags 22 Apr 2011, 22:46 which is referring effects (plural) not only abuse. hence,Cost will be plural Intern Joined: 07 Nov 2012 Posts: 3 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 3 [1] , given: 9 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink] ### Show Tags 19 Nov 2012, 06:47 1 This post received KUDOS Would you please someone explain the reference of "which" in this question? According to Manhattan SC book,page 91, I though "which" always refers to the noun immediately preceding it. So here "which" should refer to abuse. Can someone tell me what I'm missing here? Thank you:) e-GMAT Representative Joined: 02 Nov 2011 Posts: 1996 Followers: 2089 Kudos [?]: 7178 [5] , given: 267 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink] ### Show Tags 19 Nov 2012, 13:03 5 This post received KUDOS Expert's post 1 This post was BOOKMARKED misan wrote: Would you please someone explain the reference of "which" in this question? According to Manhattan SC book,page 91, I though "which" always refers to the noun immediately preceding it. So here "which" should refer to abuse. Can someone tell me what I'm missing here? Thank you:) Hi there, The correct answer for this question is B. Let's see the senetnce with the correct answer choice now: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business more than$100 billion a year.

"which" is a relative pronoun that must refer to a preceding noun entity. This entity can be a single word noun entity or a noun phrase. In this case, "which" modifies the preceding noun entity "the effects of drug and alcohol abuse", a noun phrase. Since "the effects" is the head of this noun phrase, "which" stands for that plural enity and hence takes plural verb "cost".

So Noun Modifiers can refer to a slightly far away noun as we saw in this sentence. To read more on this topic, click on the following link:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year. (A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of >>> Wrong. Too wordy (B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business >>> Correct. Concise. "The effects" is plural + "cost" --> Correct (C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of >>> Wrong. the use of "with" is unclear. (D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business >>> Wrong. parallel structure is wrong. (E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business >>> Wrong . parallel structure is wrong. So, B is the best. _________________ Please +1 KUDO if my post helps. Thank you. "Designing cars consumes you; it has a hold on your spirit which is incredibly powerful. It's not something you can do part time, you have do it with all your heart and soul or you're going to get it wrong." Chris Bangle - Former BMW Chief of Design. Intern Status: single Joined: 11 Aug 2012 Posts: 10 Location: Peru Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 18 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink] ### Show Tags 06 Nov 2013, 20:54 Hello: Any help would be appreciated! 119. Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than$100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business
of
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of
(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business
(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business

OA B. Narrowed to B,C,E.

My questions on the OA
What s which referring to? I know that there is "middlemen" in there "of drug and alcohol abuse"
but it shouldn't be effects of "abusing of something".
I picked up C because i was trying to avoid "the which" modifier part, but already kind of intuited that already couldn't modify the whole sentence...

Thanks in advance
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2015, 02:20
I marked C by process of elimination.

D & E are straight away out as we require adverbial modifier here.

In B which refers to noun phrase. But context-wise how " the effects of drug & alcohol abuse" can cost business ?

Is the meaning is : the effects of drug & alcohol abuse causing damage of more than $100 billion ? or Drugs & alcohol cost business .... I am not clear about meaning here. I feel meaning wise B does not stand. Please correct me if I am wrong Thanks Manager Joined: 08 Oct 2015 Posts: 79 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 2 [0], given: 7 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink] ### Show Tags 24 Nov 2015, 02:26 egmat wrote: misan wrote: Would you please someone explain the reference of "which" in this question? According to Manhattan SC book,page 91, I though "which" always refers to the noun immediately preceding it. So here "which" should refer to abuse. Can someone tell me what I'm missing here? Thank you:) Hi there, The correct answer for this question is B. Let's see the senetnce with the correct answer choice now: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business more than$100 billion a year.

"which" is a relative pronoun that must refer to a preceding noun entity. This entity can be a single word noun entity or a noun phrase. In this case, "which" modifies the preceding noun entity "the effects of drug and alcohol abuse", a noun phrase. Since "the effects" is the head of this noun phrase, "which" stands for that plural enity and hence takes plural verb "cost".

So Noun Modifiers can refer to a slightly far away noun as we saw in this sentence. To read more on this topic, click on the following link:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha

can u pls explain the usage of the comma + ing verb here? I thought that it should modify the head subject
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2015, 20:19
If you ask yourself how is it growing rapidly? The answer should be by significantly compounding something. So, we need the adverb "significantly". " Which" modifies "effects" and since "effects" is plural the verb is " cost". Hence, the only possible answer is B.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack a   [#permalink] 03 Dec 2015, 20:19
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