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# Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably

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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2013, 00:24
(B) is the correct answer, and there is in fact no uncertainty about it. I’ll try to explain why.

First of all, it is really important to realize that for most assumption questions (not all), there are many assumptions, not one. That is, there are many different additional pieces of information that are needed in order to really prove the conclusion, but that were left out of the argument. This question is definitely of that type. Here are a few of the things that are not mentioned, but that have to be true (that is, the assumptions) in order to prove the conclusion:

- American paper manufacturers won’t buy so much of the American wood pulp that there is not much left for export.
- Japanese and European manufacturers are not ALREADY buying as much American wood pulp as the US can export.
- There is no characteristic or limitation of American wood pulp that would prevent Japanese and European manufacturers from using it, even though it would cost them less if they did. (Note that answer choice (B) is part of this one.)

In this kind of assumption question, the correct answer is one of the things that NEEDS to be true in order to prove the conclusion - but this answer is not ENOUGH BY ITSELF to prove the conclusion. In LSAT language, the correct answer is necessary in order for the conclusion to be true, but not sufficient.

So although it is true that (B) does not prove the conclusion, that doesn’t make it the wrong answer. (B) does have to be true in order to allow the conclusion to be even possible, and that makes it a necessary assumption, and therefore the right answer. Because we are looking for a necessary assumption, the “denial test” works for this question, as several people have already pointed out. The denial test works by contradicting the answer choice, and then seeing whether the CONTRADICTED version makes the conclusion impossible. If the contradicted answer choice makes the conclusion impossible, then the UNcontradicted answer choice must have been necessary in order to allow the conclusion. Thus, the uncontradicted answer choice must have been a necessary assumption.

The other choices are not necessary in order to allow the conclusion to be true:

A: They do not have to produce more paper in order to make American pulp exports go up. They could produce the same amount, but buy a lot more American pulp and a lot less of other countries’ pulp to do it.

C: They don’t have to prefer American pulp at an EQUAL price (or ignoring price) in order to make American pulp exports go up. We know from the evidence that American pulp will be really cheap. In order to make the exports go up, they only need to be willing to buy it AT THIS REALLY CHEAP PRICE.

D: I don’t think this one fooled anybody. It would be a reason NOT to buy more pulp from anyone, American or otherwise.

E: Production of American wood pulp does NOT have to stay at its present level in order to make exports go up. In fact, if the US is not able to increase its production of wood pulp, that might PREVENT wood pulp exports from going up. This one (like choice D) actually hurts the argument rather than helping it. The moral of this story is – every time you see the word “not”, make sure you know which way the statement is going.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2013, 23:45
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A) Not Relevant

B) Demand will be increased if the price falls and it is usable for the japanese …. Manufacturers. Correct.

C) This choice attributes the quality of wood pulp to the demand generated for it. However it is difficult to find support for this from the passage. So incorrect

D) Incorrect. When the demand doesn't increase if it remained same then the conclusion might hold true but if it drcreased then conclusion would be weakened.

E)Not relevant
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2013, 04:41
Conclusion: Author claims that the export of US wood pulp will increase a lot during the current year.
Premise: Falling value of dollar will make US pulp cheaper than pulp from anywhere else

Find the assumption - i.e. some NEW information that MUST be true for the conclusion to be true.

Pre-think assumptions - what HAS to be true? Some thoughts: 1. the dollar must fall quick enough for results to yield quickly 2. there must be demand from western and jap producers 3. there must be free capacity in their paper mills 4. is it the right grade of paper

A. Relevant, but doesn't HAVE TO BE true. i.e. Jap and Western European manufacturers could just replace their existing suppliers and produce no more OR they can buy and store - this does not have to be true for the conclusion to be true
B. CORRECT -> if paper quality is NOT adequate, why would importers buy (negation breaks down the argument - i.e. it must be a valid assumption)
C. Relevant, but doesn't HAVE TO BE true. Sure this statement can support the conclusion. However, it doesnt have to be true for the conclusion to be true. Even if other factors were not attractive, importers could buy raw material PURELY on cost
D. Demand doesn't have to increase. It just needs to exist. See point for A. Also if you negate this statement it STRENGTHENS the conclusion. For it to be an assumption, the negation must lead to the destruction of the conclusion
E. Again, production need not increase. Even if production remained steady, exports may rise.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2013, 12:02
I would choose B over C because if B isn't true, then no matter how cheap it would be to buy wood pulp from US if it is not of considerable quality, the manufactures from Japan and Europe won't buy the pulp.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2013, 10:17
B,

C is kind of out of scope. We are told this scenario would happen due to falling value of dollar, So why should we even consider a case where cost is not a factor. It is "the" factor.

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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2013, 06:24
It is nice to see various CR questions but I just want to take an attention about low quality questions such as this one. These questions just throw you in the wrong-path of thinking. Solving an official problem over and over again still has an advantage over solving unknown and debatable such as this one. Do not bother if you missed
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2013, 20:17
zazoz wrote:
It is nice to see various CR questions but I just want to take an attention about low quality questions such as this one. These questions just throw you in the wrong-path of thinking. Solving an official problem over and over again still has an advantage over solving unknown and debatable such as this one. Do not bother if you missed

I do not know the source of this question since the original poster hasn't given it but it is not a low quality question. Also, the OA is not debatable. It is a good tricky question and brings forward the essential difference between "necessary" and "sufficient" conditions which is something we focus a lot on in the first Veritas class. It is absolutely essential for you to understand this difference since you will find it useful not only in Verbal but also in Quant.
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Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199 Veritas Prep Reviews Intern Joined: 30 Nov 2013 Posts: 37 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 37 [0], given: 6 Re: CR-Wood pulp. [#permalink] ### Show Tags 08 Dec 2013, 12:48 marshpa wrote: Yes thats the OA but could you please provide reasons? Good question ! The answer is definitely "B" but the question is a little tricky. I think the best way to tackle this question is to negate the answer choices and the one that makes the conclusion collapse is the right answer !!! For example Answer choice B negated will be as follows if papers quality is not adequate for Japanese factories then exports will not rise so this best fits . If you negate answer choice "C" you will realise that it is out of scope !! Hope that helped Intern Joined: 25 Dec 2012 Posts: 21 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 4 Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink] ### Show Tags 07 Oct 2014, 04:56 B is correct In order to ensure that the answer is correct, we can use the negation test for Assumption questions, it means that if we negate the correct answer it will weaken the conclusion of the argument. Let´s look the answer B, if we negate it, it will say that wood pulp produced in the United States would not be adequate. So it will weaken the conclusion related to the increase in export from USA, because if it does not meet the criteria of Japan and WE, they will not import the wood pulp, therefore, export will not increase as it is expected. Manager Joined: 12 Sep 2014 Posts: 172 Concentration: Strategy, Leadership GMAT 1: 740 Q49 V41 GPA: 3.94 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 75 [0], given: 103 Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink] ### Show Tags 07 Oct 2014, 05:19 Choose B for this. Most of the other answer choices are the opposite of closing the logic gap and/or are out of scope. Current Student Joined: 02 Jul 2012 Posts: 215 Location: India Schools: IIMC (A) GMAT 1: 720 Q50 V38 GPA: 2.6 WE: Information Technology (Consulting) Followers: 15 Kudos [?]: 224 [0], given: 84 Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink] ### Show Tags 23 Oct 2014, 23:09 This was an excellent question. I got it right, but after reading Karishma's reply, I would be wiser in eliminating wrong choices next time. _________________ Give KUDOS if the post helps you... Current Student Joined: 06 Mar 2014 Posts: 277 Location: India GMAT Date: 04-30-2015 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 73 [0], given: 84 Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink] ### Show Tags 05 Nov 2014, 22:57 marshpa wrote: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year. The reason for the rise is that the falling value of the dollar will make it cheaper for paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe to buy American wood pulp than to get it from any other source. Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above? (A) Factory output of paper products in Japan and Western Europe will increase sharply during this year. (B) The quality of the wood pulp produced in the United States would be adequate for the purposes of Japanese and Western European paper manufacturers. (C) Paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe would prefer to use wood pulp produced in the United States if cost were not a factor. (D) Demand for paper products made in Japan and Western Europe will not increase sharply during this year. (E) Production of wood pulp by United States companies will not increase sharply during this year. I am not convinced with OA for this question.. In sum, this question boils down to two options, namely B and C. There is a fine distinction between the two, which we tend to ignore. What makes B an assumption is the element of addition of the 'unstated idea' that is necessary to hold the conclusion. What makes C falter is that C is more of an inference than an assumption, it uses similarly worded terms that are not 'NECESSARY' but a mere inference or rather an extended premise of what is already stated in the passage. Hence, B it is. Manager Joined: 30 Sep 2009 Posts: 124 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 27 [0], given: 183 Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink] ### Show Tags 06 Nov 2014, 02:38 Even though i selected C over B . I now understand why C cannot be the assumptions even though the argument fails. C is just a repetition of the premise stated . Had the paragraph not mentioned the information it would be the perfect assumption to this question. GMAT Club Legend Joined: 01 Oct 2013 Posts: 10534 Followers: 919 Kudos [?]: 203 [0], given: 0 Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink] ### Show Tags 08 Dec 2015, 17:49 Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email. Intern Joined: 31 Jul 2013 Posts: 2 Location: United States Concentration: Marketing, General Management GMAT Date: 07-30-2015 WE: Project Management (Computer Software) Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 5 Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink] ### Show Tags 21 Dec 2015, 08:23 (B) The quality of the wood pulp produced in the United States would be adequate for the purposes of Japanese and Western European paper manufacturers. (C) Paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe would prefer to use wood pulp produced in the United States if cost were not a factor. As per option C, they prefer to USE wood pulp and NOT BUY it. Possibly they already have an excess inventory of Wooden pulp made in US and hence won't buy it this year. So this assumption is not necessarily true. Manager Joined: 01 Aug 2014 Posts: 55 Followers: 2 Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 1 Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably [#permalink] ### Show Tags 30 Dec 2015, 00:34 Premise: US$ fall value – cheaper for Japan and Europe to import.
Conclusion: Exports US’s wood pulp will rise.
Choice C and E are out of scope, Choice D does no impact the argument, Choice A uses too strong words, and it does not need to increase sharply in output of paper products – the output unchanged is enough to increase export US’s wood pulp.
Choice B is correct answer, it strengthens the argument and negate choice B will weaken the conclusion, not adequate quality– not increase exports.
Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably   [#permalink] 30 Dec 2015, 00:34

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