Find all School-related info fast with the new School-Specific MBA Forum

It is currently 23 Sep 2014, 07:02

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

Faced with the problems of insufficient evidence, of

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:
Intern
Intern
User avatar
Joined: 16 Oct 2009
Posts: 9
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 6 [0], given: 2

Faced with the problems of insufficient evidence, of [#permalink] New post 30 Jan 2011, 13:57
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Faced with the problems of insufficient evidence, of conflicting evidence, and of evidence relayed through the flawed perceptual, retentive, and narrative abilities of witnesses, a jury is forced to draw inferences in its attempt to ascertain the truth. By applying the same cognitive tools they have developed and used over a lifetime, jurors engage in the inferential exercise that lawyers call fact-finding. In certain decision-making contexts that are relevant to the trial of lawsuits, however, these normally reliable cognitive tools may cause jurors to commit inferential errors that distort rather than reveal the truth.

Although juries can make a variety of inferential errors, most of these mistakes in judgment involve the drawing of an unwarranted conclusion from the evidence, that is, in reality, it does not prove. For example, evidence that the defendant in a criminal prosecution has a prior conviction may encourage jurors to presume the defendant’s guilt, because of their preconception that a person previously convicted of a crime must be inclined toward repeated criminal behavior. That commonly held belief is at least a partial distortion of reality; not all former convicts engage in repeated criminal behavior. Also, a jury may give more probative weight than objective analysis would allow to vivid photographic evidence depicting a shooting victim’s wounds, or may underestimate the weight of defense testimony that is not delivered in a sufficiently forceful or persuasive manner. Finally, complex or voluminous evidence might be so confusing to a jury that its members would draw totally unwarranted conclusions or even ignore the evidence entirely.

Recent empirical research in cognitive psychology suggests that people tend to commit inferential errors like these under certain predictable circumstances. By examining the available information, the situation, and the type of decision being made, cognitive psychologists can describe the kinds of inferential errors a person or a group is likely to make. These patterns of human decision-making may provide the courts with a guide to evaluating the effect of evidence on the reliability of the jury’s inferential processes in certain situations.

The fact that juries can commit inferential errors that jeopardize the accuracy of the fact-finding process is not unknown to the courts. In fact, one of a presiding judge’s duties is to minimize jury inferential error through explanation and clarification. Nonetheless, most judges now employ only a limited and primitive concept of jury inferential error: limited because it fails to recognize the potential for errors outside certain traditional situations, primitive because it ignores the research and conclusions of psychologists in favor of notions about human cognition held by lawyers.
Que 1 . Which of the following best explains the main idea of the passage?
(A) When making decisions in certain predictable situations, juries may commit inferential errors that obscure rather than reveal the truth.
(B) The views of human cognition held by psychologists on the one hand and by the legal profession are demonstrably dissimilar.
(C) When confronting powerful preconceptions, particularly shocking evidence, or complex situations, jurors make errors in judgment.
(D) The problem of inferential error by juries is typical of the difficulties with cognitive processes that people face in their everyday lives.
(E) Juries would probably make more reliable decisions if cognitive psychologists, rather than judges, instructed them about the problems inherent in drawing unwarranted conclusions.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


Que2 : “It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following generalizations about lawyers?”
(A) They have a less sophisticated understanding of human cognition than do psychologists.
(B) They often present complex or voluminous information merely in order to confuse a jury.
(C) They are no better at making logical inferences from the testimony at a trial than are most judges.
(D) They have worked to help judges minimize jury inferential error.
(E) They are unrealistic about the ability of jurors to ascertain the truth.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


Que3. “The author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following generalizations about a jury’s decisionmaking process?”
(A) The more evidence a jury has, the more likely it is that the jury will reach a reliable verdict.
(B) Juries usually overestimate the value of visual evidence such as photographs.
(C) Jurors have preconceptions about the behavior of defendants that prevent them from making an objective analysis of the evidence in a criminal trial.
(D) Most of the jurors who make inferential errors during a trial do so because they are unaccustomed to having to make difficult decisions based on inferences.
(E) The manner in which evidence is presented to a jury may influence the jury either to overestimate or to underestimate the value of that evidence.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Status: Preparing for GMAT - March 2011
Joined: 21 May 2010
Posts: 149
Location: London
Schools: INSEAD, RSM, HEC, St. Gallen, IF, IESE
WE 1: Finance 6 years
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 10 [0], given: 0

GMAT Tests User
Re: Tough passage : Help require [#permalink] New post 31 Jan 2011, 01:22
Q1 IMO answer is A. as this passage solely talks about the Jury's incapability of arriving to the decision based on inferential technique. Then author goes on to provide example and psychological facts which supports his view point. hence this passage is concerned about the flawed technique use by jury which could obscure the truth in some cases.

Q2: E -In the first paragraph, the author mentioned that Lawyers' overestimate the jury's ability to reach the truth by stating "By applying the same cognitive tools they have developed and used over a lifetime, jurors engage in the inferential exercise that lawyers call fact-finding". Therefore we can infer that by this author meant that Lawyers think that using this technique Jury could make Right judgement without obscuring truth.

Q3: E Again due to overcomplicated facts or evidences presented to the Jury. Jury uses inferential techq to their aid to reach the judgement.


Interesting topic. I hope that helps. Please post the OA.
_________________

In The World Full Of Duplicates,, I Am The Only Masterpiece..
Girl Power
beat-the-beast-with-non-native-speaker-108349.html

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Status: Happy to join ROSS!
Joined: 29 Sep 2010
Posts: 279
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Ross '14 (M)
Followers: 17

Kudos [?]: 102 [0], given: 48

GMAT Tests User
Re: Tough passage : Help require [#permalink] New post 20 Feb 2011, 11:22
1 - B (changed from A after reading tirupatibalaj's answers)
2 - A (disagree with E because of 'primitive because it ignores the research and conclusions of psychologists in favor of notions about human cognition held by lawyers' at the end of the text)
3 - E (some hints are mentioned in 2nd and 3rd paragraphs)
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 14 Jul 2010
Posts: 16
GMAT 1: Q V0
GMAT 2: Q V0
GMAT 3: 750 Q50 V41
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

Re: Tough passage : Help require [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2011, 03:14
IMO: A B E
Need OA.
But tirupatibalaji seems has good explanation for the second question. So, I think that OA may be A E E.
B is too aggressive
Director
Director
avatar
Status: Matriculating
Affiliations: Chicago Booth Class of 2015
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 931
Followers: 11

Kudos [?]: 196 [0], given: 123

Reviews Badge
Re: Tough passage : Help require [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2011, 03:55
1.A
2.A
3.E

Posted from my mobile device Image
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 12 Oct 2009
Posts: 272
Schools: Columbia, INSEAD, RSM, LBS
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 33 [0], given: 4

GMAT Tests User
Re: Tough passage : Help require [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2011, 13:03
IMO
A
B
E
Director
Director
User avatar
Joined: 21 Dec 2010
Posts: 658
Followers: 10

Kudos [?]: 81 [0], given: 51

GMAT Tests User
Re: Tough passage : Help require [#permalink] New post 20 Apr 2011, 19:47
where is the OA ? opinions dont matter
_________________

What is of supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy's strategy.

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 20 Apr 2011
Posts: 4
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

Re: Tough passage : Help require [#permalink] New post 22 Apr 2011, 08:56
Hi,

I saw in some other forum, the official answers are A A E, I finished in 3 min 5 sec, but got the second one wrong.
SVP
SVP
avatar
Joined: 16 Nov 2010
Posts: 1691
Location: United States (IN)
Concentration: Strategy, Technology
Followers: 30

Kudos [?]: 290 [0], given: 36

GMAT Tests User Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: Tough passage : Help require [#permalink] New post 23 Apr 2011, 08:25
The answers are A,A,E.
_________________

Formula of Life -> Achievement/Potential = k * Happiness (where k is a constant)

Get the best GMAT Prep Resources with GMAT Club Premium Membership

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 08 Aug 2011
Posts: 203
GPA: 3.5
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 10 [0], given: 51

GMAT Tests User
Re: Faced with the problems of insufficient evidence, of [#permalink] New post 11 Jan 2012, 22:53
I got A,B and E.One wrong :(
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 08 Jul 2008
Posts: 148
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 1

Re: Faced with the problems of insufficient evidence, of [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2012, 23:51
A,A,E
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 02 May 2011
Posts: 37
Location: Canada
Concentration: General Management, Social Entrepreneurship
GMAT 1: 630 Q45 V33
GMAT 2: 700 Q47 V40
GPA: 3.78
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 17 [0], given: 55

GMAT Tests User
Re: Faced with the problems of insufficient evidence, of [#permalink] New post 22 Feb 2012, 11:39
I'd be really interested to know why the answer to the last question is E.

I got C.

The point mentioned in E is nowhere mentioned in the passage.
Current Student
avatar
Status: Now or never
Joined: 07 Aug 2010
Posts: 326
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, Technology
GPA: 3.5
WE: Consulting (Consulting)
Followers: 7

Kudos [?]: 131 [0], given: 26

GMAT Tests User Premium Member
Re: Faced with the problems of insufficient evidence, of [#permalink] New post 08 Aug 2012, 09:32
Can someone explain how to pick C vs E on the last question , as far as I see information for both the C and E is present , C is presented through an example in the first para "as a prior conviction may encourage jurors to presume the defendant’s guilt, because of their preconception that a person previously convicted of a crime must be inclined toward repeated criminal behavior. That commonly held belief is at least a partial distortion of reality" , E is also present in next line. How to eliminate C?
_________________

Please press KUDOS if you like my post

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2009
Posts: 141
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 32 [0], given: 97

GMAT Tests User
Re: Faced with the problems of insufficient evidence, of [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2012, 16:57
vvhy do people post questions and no ansvvers :(
Re: Faced with the problems of insufficient evidence, of   [#permalink] 27 Aug 2012, 16:57
    Similar topics Author Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
8 Experts publish their posts in the topic One of the greatest problems facing Engineering daagh 34 23 Jun 2011, 02:37
Experts publish their posts in the topic Facing the problem as a non native speaker nibedita84 2 07 Jun 2011, 18:11
facing problem with these types of questions. david01 2 30 Dec 2009, 00:46
Facing Problems with SC aditi saini 3 27 Jun 2005, 00:27
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Faced with the problems of insufficient evidence, of

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Privacy Policy| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.