Floating in the waters of the equatorial Pacific, an array of buoys collects and transmits data on long-term interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, interactions that affect global climate.
A. atmosphere, interactions that affect
B. atmosphere, with interactions affecting
C. atmosphere that affects
D. atmosphere that is affecting
E. atmosphere as affects
I think answer is A. "interactions that affect" explains the effect of the interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere.
B. this choice is wordy and there's something wrong with "with interactions affecting", which appears to be run-on
C. "atmosphere that affects" means that only the atmosphere has an effect on global climate, while the original meaning is the interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere affects the global climate
D. Same as C but is worse in grammar
E. Gramatically incorrect