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Folks, Any thoughts on the following: Art historians are

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Manager
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Folks, Any thoughts on the following: Art historians are [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2005, 04:02
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Folks,

Any thoughts on the following:
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by artists of the time.

(A) if has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done
++++

The OA is (c). I would appreciate if someone can provide further insights into the following fundamentals based on the above question:
a)What is the difference b/w "has been" and "had been"?Why is "has been" more appropriate compared to "had been" in this case?
b)Why should we add the word "whether" in (C)?What purpose does it serve?
++++

Tx.
Anna
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Senior Manager
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 [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2005, 04:21
(C) seems appropriate.

In the middle ages, it was a common practice that the master artist sketched the painting and his students / subortdinates took over the painting job.

Historians are trying to verify two theories:

(1) Whether or not the Monalisa went through a similar process (hence second "whether" in the OA)

(2) Whether or not the painting has undergone changes since the time it was completed. Here, completed refers to the point in time when the painting was indeed complete (and not just the skecth). Hence the "has been".
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 [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2005, 06:12
maaverick wrote:
(C) seems appropriate.

In the middle ages, it was a common practice that the master artist sketched the painting and his students / subortdinates took over the painting job.

Historians are trying to verify two theories:

(1) Whether or not the Monalisa went through a similar process (hence second "whether" in the OA)

(2) Whether or not the painting has undergone changes since the time it was completed. Here, completed refers to the point in time when the painting was indeed complete (and not just the skecth). Hence the "has been".

maaverick can explain more about has been and had been. i am kinda a confused.
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 [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2005, 06:24
Sure, I'll give it a try:

- the "had been" changes to the Monalisa are referring to the query on whether or not the painting was sketched by da Vinci and later painted by someone else. In this case - the changes to the painting are over and done with.

- the "has been" changes probably refers to the day-to-day degradation of the painting due to exposure to light, dust, etc. which happen after the painting was completed.

It's critical to appreciate the difference between the two types of changes. Hope this helps - if you have further queries, just leave a message.
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 [#permalink] New post 06 Jan 2005, 03:33
Thank you Maverick.In short we use:
has been-the event was concluded in the past and changes/modifications happened even after the conclusion.
had been-the event happened in the past and no changes/modifications happened.
+++

On the same subject,when will we use "have been"?

Also what is the significant difference b/w was/were and "had been"?Thank you.Rgds,

Anna
maaverick wrote:
Sure, I'll give it a try:

- the "had been" changes to the Monalisa are referring to the query on whether or not the painting was sketched by da Vinci and later painted by someone else. In this case - the changes to the painting are over and done with.

- the "has been" changes probably refers to the day-to-day degradation of the painting due to exposure to light, dust, etc. which happen after the painting was completed.

It's critical to appreciate the difference between the two types of changes. Hope this helps - if you have further queries, just leave a message.

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  [#permalink] 06 Jan 2005, 03:33
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Folks, Any thoughts on the following: Art historians are

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