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Following this thread, I have compiled the OG12 questions

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Following this thread, I have compiled the OG12 questions [#permalink] New post 21 Sep 2011, 05:25
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Following this thread, I have compiled the OG12 questions that relate to this kind of problem
27-og10-question-on-altered-intent-changes-in-meaning-120871.html#p977110

8. The widely accepted big bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.

(A) that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding
(B) that the universe had begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and had been expanding
(C) that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that has expanded
(D) the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that is expanding
(E) the universe to have begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Logical predication; Verb form
The sentence describes the central tenet of a theory about how the universe began. The focus of the second clause should be consistently on the subject the universe, and all verbs in the clause beginning with that must describe what the universe did at the initial explosive moment.

A Correct. Both verbs in the second clause correctly take universe as their subject.
B Had begun is the wrong tense because it describes action that occurred farther in the past than some other, specified past action.
C The relative clause that has expanded describes instant, which makes no sense.
D The beginning of the universe to have been … is unnecessarily indirect and wordy; illogically suggests that beginning is expanding, not the universe.
E The verb phrases to have begun and has been expanding both reference the same subject of the clause, universe, and therefore need to be parallel.

The correct answer is A.



12. Rising inventories, when unaccompanied correspondingly by increases in sales, can lead to production cutbacks that would hamper economic growth.

(A) when unaccompanied correspondingly by increases in sales, can lead
(B) when not accompanied by corresponding increases in sales, possibly leads
(C) when they were unaccompanied by corresponding sales increases, can lead
(D) if not accompanied by correspondingly increased sales, possibly leads
(E) if not accompanied by corresponding increases in sales, can lead

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Diction; Agreement
The modifying phrase when … sales is needlessly difficult to understand. The adverb correspondingly is incorrectly and ambiguously used; using the adjective corresponding to modify increases in sales makes the intended meaning clearer. Unaccompanied is not wrong but not accompanied more effectively expresses the intended negation.

A Unaccompanied correspondingly is awkward and ambiguous.
B Plural subject inventories does not agree with the singular verb leads.
C Wrong tense: past tense were indicates a completed event, but can lead indicates a possibility that continues.
D Correspondingly increased sales is awkward and unclear; verb (leads) does not agree with the subject (inventories).
E Correct. Not accompanied emphasizes the negative and is preferable to unaccompanied in this usage; corresponding modifies increases in sales; the modifier is clear and comprehensible, and there is no subject-verb agreement problem.

The correct answer is E.



16. Retail sales rose 0.8 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.

(A) that personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubled that of
(B) that personal spending in the July–September quarter would more than double
(C) of personal spending in the July–September quarter, that it more than doubled
(D) of personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubling that of
(E) of personal spending in the July–September quarter, that it would more than double that of

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Verb form; Logical predication
The sentence explains the expectations that resulted from a past retail sales trend. Since expectations look to the future but are not yet realized, the relative clause explaining these expectations should be conditional, employing the auxiliary verb would.
A The simple past-tense verb form does not express the forward-looking sense of expectations.
B Correct. By using the verb would double, this concise sentence indicates that the expectation has not yet been realized.
C This construction is awkward, announcing the topic (personal spending) and then elaborating in a relative clause that restates this topic as it.
D Although this option is not technically wrong, it is less clear and graceful than B.
E Like option C, this sentence is awkward and unnecessarily wordy, announcing the topic and then using an additional clause to elaborate on it.

The correct answer is B.



17. The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word “natural” to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

(A) or nothing that has been
(B) or that has been
(C) and nothing that is
(D) or anything that has been
(E) and anything

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Idiom; Logical predication
The use of do not and nothing in the same sentence creates a double negative and reverses the intended meaning. Anything should be used instead of nothing. Logically, a “natural” food cannot contain any prohibited ingredient, so the list of prohibited ingredients must be connected by or.

A The use of nothing creates a double negative.
B That has been synthesized distorts the meaning by referring to foods, rather than to something added to a food.
C The use of nothing creates a double negative; and should be or.
D Correct. Th is sentence correctly avoids a double negative and uses parallel elements.
E And distorts the meaning of the sentence.

The correct answer is D.



21. Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

(A) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are
(B) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
(C) Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
(D) Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,
(E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Grammatical construction; Logical predication
This sentence introduces the subject (Neuroscientists), pauses to explain what neuroscientists have accomplished in the past twenty years, and then concludes by explaining what neuroscientists are presently doing as a result of their past accomplishments. The second part of the sentence—the explanation—interrupts the flow of the sentence from the subject (Neuroscientists) to the predicate (are now drawing solid conclusions …); it should therefore be bracketed by commas. The sentence construction should provide a main verb for the subject neuroscientists.

A Correct. The explanatory phrase between the subject and predicate is set off by commas, and the main clause contains both a subject (Neuroscientists) and a corresponding verb (are now drawing).
B And are indicates that are follows a previous verb, but in fact the sentence has not yet provided a first main verb for the subject Neuroscientists; the sentence is therefore incomplete; over the … years appears to be modifying adulthood.
C Amassing, like having amassed, functions as an adjective, not a verb; the sentence therefore lacks the first main verb implied by the compound verb construction and are now drawing…
D The final descriptor in present tense, now drawing conclusions … does not fit the opening clause, which is in present-perfect
tense (have amassed a wealth …) and seems to modify adulthood.
E Like D, this sentence attempts to attach a present-tense descriptor to a present-perfect clause.

The correct answer is A.



31. Unlike the conviction held by many of her colleagues that genes were relatively simple and static, Barbara McClintock adhered to her own more complicated ideas about how genes might operate, and in 1983, at the age of 81, was awarded a Nobel Prize for her discovery that the genes in corn are capable of moving from one chromosomal site to another.

(A) Unlike the conviction held by many of her colleagues that genes were
(B) Although many of her colleagues were of the conviction of genes being
(C) Contrary to many of her colleagues being convinced that genes were
(D) Even though many of her colleagues were convinced that genes were
(E) Even with many of her colleagues convinced of genes being

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Rhetorical construction; Idiom; Logical predication
The sentence compares a widely held conviction about genes with McClintock’s adherence to her own ideas, then goes on to describe McClintock’s accomplishments. Th e sentence must not compare widespread convictions with McClintock herself. The clearest and most efficient way to make the comparison is to introduce McClintock’s colleagues’ convictions in a dependent clause, followed by a main clause that introduces McClintock’s different way of doing things and goes on to explain how successful she was.

A Incorrect comparison between conviction and Barbara McClintock.
B Were of the conviction of genes being relatively simple is wordy and awkward.
C Contrary to many of her colleagues being convinced is wordy and awkward.
D Correct. A dependent clause describing the beliefs of McClintock’s colleagues is followed by the main clause presenting the
contrasting beliefs of McClintock.
E Even with many of her colleagues … is wordy and indirect.

The correct answer is D.



37. Although schistosomiasis is not often fatal, it is so debilitating that it has become an economic drain on many developing countries.

(A) it is so debilitating that it has become an economic
(B) it is of such debilitation, it has become an economical
(C) so debilitating is it as to become an economic
(D) such is its debilitation, it becomes an economical
(E) there is so much debilitation that it has become an economical

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Idiom
This sentence correctly uses the idiomatic construction so x that y where y is a subordinate clause that explains or describes x: So debilitating that it has become… It clearly refers to schistosomiasis, which is correctly modified by the adjective debilitating.

A Correct. In this sentence, the pronoun reference is clear, and the so x that y construction is concise.
B The noun debilitation creates an awkward, wordy alternative and a slight change in meaning; the subordinate clause is not
introduced by that; economical does not have the same meaning as economic.
C The construction so x as to y is not a correct idiom.
D The construction introduced by such is awkward and wordy; debilitation is also awkward and slightly different in meaning; that is omitted; economical does not have the same meaning as economic.
E The noun debilitation creates an awkward, wordy alternative and a slight change in meaning; economical does not have the same meaning as economic.

The correct answer is A.



39. In 1527 King Henry VIII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne Boleyn.

(A) so as to marry
(B) and so could be married to
(C) to be married to
(D) so that he could marry
(E) in order that he would marry

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Grammatical construction; Idiom
This sentence should use the construction x happened so that y could happen; so introduces a clause of purpose, explaining the reason for the action in the main clause. Henry … sought to have his marriage … annulled so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. The relationship between the two clauses is clear.

A So as to marry is not idiomatically correct; it does not identify who will marry.
B This alternative is ungrammatical and illogical: Henry could not marry simply on the basis of seeking an annulment.
C The infinitive here should be preceded by a conjunction (in order); to marry is preferable to the wordier to be married to.
D Correct. Th is sentence’s construction clearly shows the reason that Henry sought an annulment; could is more appropriate than would because the annulment would not ensure his marriage—it would only enable him to marry.
E The conditional would marry is incorrect.

The correct answer is D.



49. The automotive conveyor-belt system, which Henry Ford modeled after an assembly-line technique introduced by Ransom Olds, reduced from a day and a half to 93 minutes the required time of assembling a Model T.

(A) from a day and a half to 93 minutes the required time of assembling a Model T
(B) the time being required to assemble a Model T, from a day and a half down to 93 minutes
(C) the time being required to assemble a Model T, a day and a half to 93 minutes
(D) the time required to assemble a Model T from a day and a half to 93 minutes
(E) from a day and a half to 93 minutes, the time required for the assembling of a Model T

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Rhetorical construction; Idiom
The underlined portion of the original sentence is awkward because the verb reduced is followed by a prepositional phrase rather than the direct object time. Changing this structure so that the object immediately follows the verb, reduced the time, also allows an idiomatic error to be corrected. Required should be followed by an infinitive, to assemble, rather than a prepositional phrase, of assembling. The phrase indicating time should be used to complete the sentence: reduced the time required to assemble a Model T from a day and a half to 93 minutes.

A Placement of phrases creates an awkward construction; required … of assembling is not idiomatic.
B Being required and down to are wordy constructions; the comma is unnecessary.
C Being required is wordy; the construction from … to indicates time, not to alone.
D Correct. This sentence has a clear, concise, and idiomatic construction.
E Beginning with the prepositional phrase is awkward; the comma is unnecessary; required for the assembling of is wordy and awkward.

The correct answer is D.



57. That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault: Alvin Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970.

(A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault
(B) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault
(C) It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology
(D) It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology
(E) The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Grammatical construction; Rhetorical construction
Although it is possible to begin a sentence with a subordinate clause beginning with that, this inverted construction often results in errors such as those found here. In the original sentence, the subordinate clause that … technology is followed by the main verb, can … be said, but then the verb is followed by yet another subordinate clause, that it is their fault. The best way to solve this problem is by putting the sentence in the expected order, with the main clause (It can hardly be said) preceding the subordinate clause (that … ). For greater clarity and concision, the two subordinate clauses should be condensed into one: educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology.

A Inverting the usual order results in an ungrammatical construction in which the main verb is both preceded and followed by a subordinate clause.
B Can hardly be said to be at fault does not grammatically complete the subordinate clause.
C Construction that it is … who have not is wordy and awkward; it also distorts meaning and lacks completion.
D Correct. This sentence has the main clause followed by one subordinate clause correctly introduced by that.
E The fact is wordy; the inverted construction does not successfully convey the meaning of the sentence.

The correct answer is D.



93. Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were last year.

(A) Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were
(B) Heating-oil prices are expected to rise higher this year over last because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did
(C) Expectations are for heating-oil prices to be higher this year than last year’s because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did
(D) It is the expectation that heating-oil prices will be higher for this year over last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil now than what they were
(E) It is expected that heating-oil prices will rise higher this year than last year’s because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Rhetorical construction; Idiom
The sentence connects a comparison between this year’s and last year’s heating-oil prices with a comparison between this year’s and last year’s crude-oil prices. The most efficient, parallel expression of those comparisons is to use two comparative expressions, higher than and more than.

A Correct. This sentence expresses the comparison in succinct, parallel phrases.
B The comparative form, higher, anticipates the comparative term than, not over; in the second clause, the comparative terms more than should immediately follow $5 a barrel.
C Expectations are for … is an unnecessarily wordy and indirect expression; the possessive year’s is not parallel with the
adverbial phrase this year.
D It is the expectation that … is wordy and awkward; for and what are unnecessary.
E It is expected that … is wordy and awkward; the possessive last year’s does not parallel the adverbial phrase this year.

The correct answer is A.



98. Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(A) Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.
(B) Although named for the New Mexico site where first discovered in 1932, Clovis points are spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces and have been found all over North America.
(C) Named for the New Mexico site where they have been first discovered in 1932, Clovis points, spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto the faces, have been found all over North America.
(D) Spear points with longitudinal grooves that are chipped onto the faces, Clovis points, even though named for the New Mexico site where first discovered in 1932, but were found all over North America.
(E) While Clovis points are spear points whose faces have longitudinal grooves chipped into them, they have been found all over North America, and named for the New Mexico site where they have been first discovered in 1932.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Verb form; Rhetorical construction; Logical predication
Even though, although, and while introduce clauses that appear to be logically incompatible but in fact are not. In this sentence, the apparent incompatibility that must be clearly expressed is that although the spear points are named for a particular place in New Mexico, they are in fact found throughout North America. Because their discovery took place in 1932 and is not ongoing, the correct verb tense is simple past, not present perfect.

A Correct. The even though clause expresses clearly that the seeming incompatibility is between where the spear points have been found (all over North America) and the naming of the spear points for a single site in New Mexico.
B The sentence structure indicates that the expected incompatibility is between the geographically based name of the points and
their physical properties, which makes no sense; where discovered is missing a subject— the correct form is where they were first discovered.
C Have been first discovered is the wrong tense, since the discovery is a discrete event completed in the past.
D The sequence of information in this sentence is confusing; even though and but both introduce information that is contrary to expectation, so to use them both to describe a single apparent contradiction is redundant and nonsensical.
E While introduces a description of Clovis points and suggests that this appears incompatible with their appearance all over
North America, which makes no sense; have been first discovered is the wrong tense.

The correct answer is A.




135. Spanning more than 50 years, Friedrich Müller began his career in an unpromising apprenticeship as a Sanskrit scholar and culminated in virtually every honor that European governments and learned societies could bestow.

(A) Müller began his career in an unpromising apprenticeship as
(B) Müller’s career began in an unpromising apprenticeship as
(C) Müller’s career began with the unpromising apprenticeship of being
(D) Müller had begun his career with the unpromising apprenticeship of being
(E) the career of Müller has begun with an unpromising apprenticeship of

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Logical predication; Idiom
What spanned more than 50 years? It was Müller’s career that spanned 50 years and culminated in virtually every honor. The correct subject of the sentence must be Müller’s career.

A Müller’s career, not Müller, should be the subject of the sentence.
B Correct. Using Müller’s career as the subject of the sentence solves the modification problem with spanning … and provides a logical subject for culminated.
C Apprenticeship of being is an incorrect idiom; apprenticeship as is correct.
D Müller’s career, not Müller, should be the subject of the sentence; past perfect tense is inappropriate; apprenticeship of being is an incorrect idiom.
E Müller’s career is preferable to the career of Müller; present perfect tense is incorrect; apprenticeship of should be apprenticeship as.

The correct answer is B.
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Re: 13 OG12 questions on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink] New post 21 Sep 2011, 19:18
Thanks for a great collection.

Questions 16, 17 and 135 are the ones which are truly meaning based and require understanding the intent of the author.

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Re: 13 OG12 questions on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink] New post 22 Sep 2011, 02:12
Thanks for the awesome collection.
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Re: 13 OG12 questions on altered intent, changes in meaning [#permalink] New post 22 Sep 2011, 09:36
Expert's post
I think about that: the questions above are from official guide on "meaning" and if you look at the explenation of each question you can see ALWAYS logical predication (or meaning).

BUT this logical predication is throughtout the entire SC section ???

I'm wrong ??'

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Re: 13 OG12 questions on altered intent, changes in meaning   [#permalink] 22 Sep 2011, 09:36
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