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# For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in

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15 Mar 2011, 00:30
Nicely explained GMAT pill. Kudos for you
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18 May 2011, 19:29

what OG says that E could be correct if comma was not there. Is it universal rule that infinitives (to) cannot come just after comma?
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24 May 2011, 07:31
prasforgmat wrote:
Is it universal rule that infinitives (to) cannot come just after comma?

No. There are certainly possibilities where this can be done.
"For lizards, organisms that inhabit the earth, to [X] is to [Y]."
"For lizards, organisms that inhabit the earth, to [die] is to [leave your remains for the rest of the ecosystem]."

In this example "to" is right after a comma.
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31 May 2011, 20:14
OA is C
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15 Jul 2011, 03:15
IMO C as protecting sounds correct being placed after a comma.
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04 May 2012, 01:50
Ron said,
abstract noun can refer/modify the preceding clause. So, in A, I can understand that "a method " modify preceding clause.
A is not incorrect.

pls, help explain.
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01 Nov 2012, 03:38
gmatpill wrote:
deepaksharma1986 wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

Dependent clause, independent clause, participial phrase.

participial phrases are extremely important on the GMAT test. Once I knew what they were, I realized that many questions contain this structure.

Hi, could anyone please explain what participle phrases/clauses mean? I am not at all clear on that concept. It'll be great if anyone could help on this. Thanks.

Hi deepak,

So participial phrases are basically -ING verb phrases that are separated with a comma (,) from the rest of the sentence.

So in this case, "protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears" is the participial phrase.

What is this phrase describing? Structurally, it is positioned to describe "animal-hide shields."

If you're not sure, you can always flip it and read it like this:

"Protecting warriors against enemy arrows, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment."

Ask yourself if this makes sense.

Do "shields" "protect warriors against enemy arrows"? Sure! So you know this makes sense.

You can read more of a detailed explanation of this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/practice-questi ... orrection/

amazing.. Why is D wrong?
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2012, 02:21
Though I get the right answer C, I do not know why A is wrong.

Pls, help explain.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2012, 06:29
I would like to know why D is wrong.. pls help
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in [#permalink]

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11 Feb 2013, 05:55
A can be correct because

"a method ..." can modify the previouse clause

Why this is not acceptable in A?
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in [#permalink]

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11 Feb 2013, 07:52
I would like to know why D is wrong.. pls help
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22 Aug 2013, 22:30
GMATPill wrote:
deepaksharma1986 wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

Dependent clause, independent clause, participial phrase.

participial phrases are extremely important on the GMAT test. Once I knew what they were, I realized that many questions contain this structure.

Hi, could anyone please explain what participle phrases/clauses mean? I am not at all clear on that concept. It'll be great if anyone could help on this. Thanks.

Hi deepak,

So participial phrases are basically -ING verb phrases that are separated with a comma (,) from the rest of the sentence.

So in this case, "protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears" is the participial phrase.

What is this phrase describing? Structurally, it is positioned to describe "animal-hide shields."

If you're not sure, you can always flip it and read it like this:

"Protecting warriors against enemy arrows, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment."

Ask yourself if this makes sense.

Do "shields" "protect warriors against enemy arrows"? Sure! So you know this makes sense.

You can read more of a detailed explanation of this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/practice-questi ... orrection/

Even "to protect" fits in. Then why only protecting?

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22 Aug 2013, 22:41
Sachin9 wrote:
Hi deepak,

So participial phrases are basically -ING verb phrases that are separated with a comma (,) from the rest of the sentence.

So in this case, "protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears" is the participial phrase.

What is this phrase describing? Structurally, it is positioned to describe "animal-hide shields."

If you're not sure, you can always flip it and read it like this:

"Protecting warriors against enemy arrows, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment."

Ask yourself if this makes sense.

Do "shields" "protect warriors against enemy arrows"? Sure! So you know this makes sense.

You can read more of a detailed explanation of this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/practice-questi ... orrection/

amazing.. Why is D wrong? [/quote][/quote]

Because comma is fixed before underlined portion, infinitive will not work here.

Pls note: if the clause before comma is non essential then it depends on the main clause.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2013, 01:43
For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect (military equipment cannot be a method)

B. as a method protecting ( Method doesn't do protecting instead the animal shields do the protecting)

C. protecting ( This one correctly modifiers the noun in the preceding clause "animal-shields")

D. as a protection of ( Although grammatically correct choice, wordiness is the issue here)

E. to protect ( "to protect " is the purpose and shouldn't follow a comma)

Although I cannot argue against the OG's explanation, I have a query related to answer choice (E):

-ING modifier has three forms:

(1). Modifies NOUN
(2). Modifies verb and verb's subject
(3). Result of the main clause

Here the -ING modifier functions clearly as (1). as it modifies "Shields"

Meaning: Shields protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment

But the option (E) explanation by OG is

Although the infinitive to protect would work if it were not preceded by a comma, it cannot act as a nonrestrictive adjectival
phrase modifying items

We aren't modifying ITEMS here , we are modifying "SHIELDS" here. So why this explanation?

Furthermore, the explanation for the correctness of option (C) is

Correct. In this sentence, protecting properly
introduces a modifying phrase revealing the
purpose of the items.

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Last edited by Narenn on 26 Aug 2013, 11:01, edited 1 time in total.
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29 Dec 2014, 04:18
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23 Feb 2016, 21:49
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