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Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be

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Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be [#permalink]

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Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved by a move toward larger, simpler clinical trials ofmedical treatments. Currently, researchers collect far more background information on patients than is strictly required for their trials-substantially more than hospitals collect-thereby escalating costs of data collection, storage, andanalysis. Although limiting information collection could increase the risk that researchers will overlook facts relevant to a study, Frazier and Mosteller contend that such risk, never entirely eliminable from research, would still be small in most studies. Only in research on entirely new treatments are new and unexpected variables likely to arise.

Frazier and Mosteller propose not only that researchers limit data collection on individual patients but also thatresearchers enroll more patients in clinical trials, thereby obtaining a more representative sample of the total population with the disease under study. Often researchers restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied. A treatment judged successful under these ideal conditions can then be evaluated under normal conditions. Broadening the range of trial participants, Frazier and Mosteller suggest, would enable researchers to evaluate a treatment's efficacy for diverse patients under various conditions and to evaluate its effectiveness for different patient subgroups. For example, the value of a treatment for a progressive disease may vary according to a patient's stage of disease. Patients' ages may also affect a treatment's efficacy.
100) Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about a study of the category of patients referred to in lines 21-23 (bold section)?
(A) Its findings might have limited applicability.
(B) It would be prohibitively expensive in its attempt to create ideal conditions.
(C) It would be the best way to sample the total population of potential patients.
(D) It would allow researchers to limit information collection without increasing the risk that important variables could be overlooked.
(E) Its findings would be more accurate if it concerned treatments for a progressive disease than if it concerned treatments for a nonprogressive disease.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


101) It can be inferred from the passage that a study limited to patients like those mentioned in lines 21-23 would have which of the following advantages over the kind of study proposed by Frazier and Mosteller?
(A) It would yield more data and its findings would be more accurate.
(B) It would cost less in the long term, though it would be more expensive in its initial stages.
(C) It would limit the number of variables researchers would need to consider when evaluating the treatment under study.
(D) It would help researchers to identify subgroups of patients with secondary conditions that might also be treatable.
(E) It would enable researchers to assess the value of an experimental treatment for the average patient.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


103. According to the passage, which of the following describes a result of the way in which researchers generally conduct clinical trials?
(A) They expend resources on the storage of information likely to be irrelevant to the study they are conducting.
(B) They sometimes compromise the accuracy of their findings by collecting and analyzing more information than is strictly required for their trials.
(C) They avoid the risk of overlooking variables that might affect their findings, even though doing so raises their research costs.
(D) Because they attempt to analyze too much information, they overlook facts that could emerge as relevant to their studies.
(E) In order to approximate the conditions typical of medical treatment, they base their methods of information collection on those used by hospitals.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


According to the passage, Frazier and Mosteller believe which of the following about medical research?
A. It is seriously flawed as presently conducted because researchers overlook facts that are relevant to the subject of their research.
B. It tends to benefit certain subgroups of patients disproportionately.
C. It routinely reveals new variables in research on entirely new treatments.
D. It can be made more accurate by limiting the amount of information researchers collect.
E. It cannot be freed of the risk that significant variables may be overlooked.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


The author mentions patients' ages primarily in order to
A. identify the most critical variable differentiating subgroups of patients
B. cast doubt on the advisability of implementing Frazier and Mosteller's proposals about medical research
C. indicate why progressive diseases may require different treatments at different stages
D. illustrate a point about the value of enrolling a wide range of patients in clinical trials
E. substantiate an argument about the problems inherent in enrolling large numbers of patients in clinical trials
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


The passage is primarily concerned with
A. identifying two practices in medical research that may affect the accuracy of clinical trials
B. describing aspects of medical research that tend to drive up costs
C. evaluating an analysis of certain shortcomings of current medical research practices
D. describing proposed changes to the ways in which clinical trials are conducted
E. explaining how medical researchers have traditionally conducted clinical trials and how such trials are likely to change
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2012, 10:32
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My answers ACA
All questions here are inference type. Since the passage is a short one, i tried to comprehend as much as possible. I read it twice and then went to Qs.

I think best strategy is to cover up the options and try to come up with an own answer. Then just evaluate the answer choices. It works!!!
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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2014, 18:17
betterscore wrote:
Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved by a move toward larger, simpler clinical trials ofmedical treatments. Currently, researchers collect far more background information on patients than is strictly required for their trials-substantially more than hospitals collect-thereby escalating costs of data collection, storage, andanalysis. Although limiting information collection could increase the risk that researchers will overlook facts relevant to a study, Frazier and Mosteller contend that such risk, never entirely eliminable from research, would still be small in most studies. Only in research on entirely new treatments are new and unexpected variables likely to arise.

Frazier and Mosteller propose not only that researchers limit data collection on individual patients but also thatresearchers enroll more patients in clinical trials, thereby obtaining a more representative sample of the total population with the disease under study. Often researchers restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied. A treatment judged successful under these ideal conditions can then be evaluated under normal conditions. Broadening the range of trial participants, Frazier and Mosteller suggest, would enable researchers to evaluate a treatment's efficacy for diverse patients under various conditions and to evaluate its effectiveness for different patient subgroups. For example, the value of a treatment for a progressive disease may vary according to a patient's stage of disease. Patients' ages may also affect a treatment's efficacy.
100) Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about a study of the category of patients referred to in lines 21-23 (bold section)?
(A) Its findings might have limited applicability.
(B) It would be prohibitively expensive in its attempt to create ideal conditions.
(C) It would be the best way to sample the total population of potential patients.
(D) It would allow researchers to limit information collection without increasing the risk that important variables could be overlooked.
(E) Its findings would be more accurate if it concerned treatments for a progressive disease than if it concerned treatments for a nonprogressive disease.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


101) It can be inferred from the passage that a study limited to patients like those mentioned in lines 21-23 would have which of the following advantages over the kind of study proposed by Frazier and Mosteller?
(A) It would yield more data and its findings would be more accurate.
(B) It would cost less in the long term, though it would be more expensive in its initial stages.
(C) It would limit the number of variables researchers would need to consider when evaluating the treatment under study.
(D) It would help researchers to identify subgroups of patients with secondary conditions that might also be treatable.
(E) It would enable researchers to assess the value of an experimental treatment for the average patient.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


103. According to the passage, which of the following describes a result of the way in which researchers generally conduct clinical trials?
(A) They expend resources on the storage of information likely to be irrelevant to the study they are conducting.
(B) They sometimes compromise the accuracy of their findings by collecting and analyzing more information than is strictly required for their trials.
(C) They avoid the risk of overlooking variables that might affect their findings, even though doing so raises their research costs.
(D) Because they attempt to analyze too much information, they overlook facts that could emerge as relevant to their studies.
(E) In order to approximate the conditions typical of medical treatment, they base their methods of information collection on those used by hospitals.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


According to the passage, Frazier and Mosteller believe which of the following about medical research?
A. It is seriously flawed as presently conducted because researchers overlook facts that are relevant to the subject of their research.
B. It tends to benefit certain subgroups of patients disproportionately.
C. It routinely reveals new variables in research on entirely new treatments.
D. It can be made more accurate by limiting the amount of information researchers collect.
E. It cannot be freed of the risk that significant variables may be overlooked.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


The author mentions patients' ages primarily in order to
A. identify the most critical variable differentiating subgroups of patients
B. cast doubt on the advisability of implementing Frazier and Mosteller's proposals about medical research
C. indicate why progressive diseases may require different treatments at different stages
D. illustrate a point about the value of enrolling a wide range of patients in clinical trials
E. substantiate an argument about the problems inherent in enrolling large numbers of patients in clinical trials
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


The passage is primarily concerned with
A. identifying two practices in medical research that may affect the accuracy of clinical trials
B. describing aspects of medical research that tend to drive up costs
C. evaluating an analysis of certain shortcomings of current medical research practices
D. describing proposed changes to the ways in which clinical trials are conducted
E. explaining how medical researchers have traditionally conducted clinical trials and how such trials are likely to change
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D



Can anyone please help to answer my below questions? Many thanks to you!

Regarding to Q103. According to the passage, which of the following describes a result of the way in which researchers generally conduct clinical trials?
(A) They expend resources on the storage of information likely to be irrelevant to the study they are conducting.
(B) They sometimes compromise the accuracy of their findings by collecting and analyzing more information than is strictly required for their trials.
(C) They avoid the risk of overlooking variables that might affect their findings, even though doing so raises their research costs.
(D) Because they attempt to analyze too much information, they overlook facts that could emerge as relevant to their studies.
(E) In order to approximate the conditions typical of medical treatment, they base their methods of information collection on those used by hospitals.

--> I consider A and C, why C is not correct?

Regarding to this question: According to the passage, Frazier and Mosteller believe which of the following about medical research?
A. It is seriously flawed as presently conducted because researchers overlook facts that are relevant to the subject of their research.
B. It tends to benefit certain subgroups of patients disproportionately.
C. It routinely reveals new variables in research on entirely new treatments.
D. It can be made more accurate by limiting the amount of information researchers collect.
E. It cannot be freed of the risk that significant variables may be overlooked.

--> Why E is correct, not D?

Many thanks, kudos for the understandable answer :D
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LucyDang wrote:
Regarding to Q103. According to the passage, which of the following describes a result of the way in which researchers generally conduct clinical trials?
(A) They expend resources on the storage of information likely to be irrelevant to the study they are conducting.
(B) They sometimes compromise the accuracy of their findings by collecting and analyzing more information than is strictly required for their trials.
(C) They avoid the risk of overlooking variables that might affect their findings, even though doing so raises their research costs.
(D) Because they attempt to analyze too much information, they overlook facts that could emerge as relevant to their studies.
(E) In order to approximate the conditions typical of medical treatment, they base their methods of information collection on those used by hospitals.

--> I consider A and C, why C is not correct?


Choice C said that "The researchers avoid the risk of overlooking variables that might affect their finding, even though doing so raises their research costs"

Wait here please, what is "doing so"? That is "avoid the risk ...". The passage did not say that avoiding the risk would raise the cost of research.

LucyDang wrote:
Regarding to this question: According to the passage, Frazier and Mosteller believe which of the following about medical research?
A. It is seriously flawed as presently conducted because researchers overlook facts that are relevant to the subject of their research.
B. It tends to benefit certain subgroups of patients disproportionately.
C. It routinely reveals new variables in research on entirely new treatments.
D. It can be made more accurate by limiting the amount of information researchers collect.
E. It cannot be freed of the risk that significant variables may be overlooked.

--> Why E is correct, not D?

Many thanks, kudos for the understandable answer :D


Here is what Frazier and Mosteller believed: "Frazier and Mosteller propose not only that researchers limit data collection on individual patients but also that researchers enroll more patients in clinical trials, thereby obtaining a more representative sample of the total population with the disease under study"

Limitting the amount of information researchers collect do not make the study more accurate, but more representative.

The clue for choice E: "Frazier and Mosteller contend that such risk, never entirely eliminable from research, would still be small in most studies"
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New post 17 Oct 2014, 05:48
101) It can be inferred from the passage that a study limited to patients like those mentioned in lines 21-23 would have which of the following advantages over the kind of study proposed by Frazier and Mosteller?
(A) It would yield more data and its findings would be more accurate.
(B) It would cost less in the long term, though it would be more expensive in its initial stages.
(C) It would limit the number of variables researchers would need to consider when evaluating the treatment under study.
(D) It would help researchers to identify subgroups of patients with secondary conditions that might also be treatable.
(E) It would enable researchers to assess the value of an experimental treatment for the average patient.

Why is C Correct here?
Isn't what C is suggesting, is already suggested by Frazier and Mosteller? Then how would the method used by researchers be an ADVANTAGE over what is suggested by FRazier n Mosteller?
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New post 06 Dec 2014, 00:17
For 103, I chose option D. Can anyone kindly explain me why is D wrong ?
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New post 20 Dec 2014, 21:51
cmatkar wrote:
For 103, I chose option D. Can anyone kindly explain me why is D wrong ?


Hi cmatkar,

I'm happy to help explain why D is incorrect.

GMAC loves to test our ability to distinguish different groups mentioned in RC passages. Question 103 is asking about how trials are generally conducted by who? And when? Researchers, CURRENTLY. Being clear who the question is referring to will help us make our call as to what the right answer is and spot why D is wrong.

Here's the question again:

103. According to the passage, which of the following describes a result of the way in which researchers generally conduct clinical trials?
(A) They expend resources on the storage of information likely to be irrelevant to the study they are conducting.
This is our answer since the key problem with the current clinical trial method is that it results in WAY too much data, which is costly to store. From the passage: "Currently, researchers collect far more background information on patients than is strictly required for their trials-substantially more than hospitals collect-thereby escalating costs of data collection, storage, and analysis"

(D) Because they attempt to analyze too much information, they overlook facts that could emerge as relevant to their studies.
Is the problem that they attempt to analyze this information or is it that the problem is there is too much extraneous information to analyze? This answer is describing a problem, but not the one actually, and literally described in the passage.

EMPOWERgmat, calls answers like this Warps. They have the right flavor, but they twist the information enough as to be completely wrong.
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New post 23 Jan 2015, 06:18
This is regarding question 100.

Option C states that it is best way to sample total population of potential participants.

Can't we conclude C from lines 18-20, stating that "researchers enrol.... Thereby obtaining a more representative sample ".

I got trapped in option A and C, finally selected C because option A mention about " limited applicability of findings" while lines 18-21 only talks about "MORE representative sample"????

This does not mean that findings are of limited applicability.

Could someone please explain to me.

Thank you.

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New post 06 May 2015, 01:20
vikasbansal227 wrote:
This is regarding question 100.

Option C states that it is best way to sample total population of potential participants.

Can't we conclude C from lines 18-20, stating that "researchers enrol.... Thereby obtaining a more representative sample ".

I got trapped in option A and C, finally selected C because option A mention about " limited applicability of findings" while lines 18-21 only talks about "MORE representative sample"????

This does not mean that findings are of limited applicability.

Could someone please explain to me.

Actually Question 100 clearly asks us to limit ourselves to "bold section" (lines 21-23) and what is the "inference" of these lines, according to the passage. According to the passage, because researchers "restrict" study participation to only "certain" patients, this is "not" enabling researchers to evaluate a treatment's efficacy for diverse patients under various conditions and to evaluate its effectiveness for different patient subgroups.

This clearly means that currently, the findings of the research have limited applicability. This is what A says.

Coming to C, it says that "it would be the best way to sample the total population of potential patients". One thing that struck me about this optio was the term: "potential" patients. Not sure what "potential" means; my understanding is that "potential" patients would mean people who currently are not patients (means they do have a disease currently), but have a "potential" (say "genetically") to develop that disease. But, there is nothing about "potential patients" metnioned in the passage.

What do you think about this?
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New post 06 May 2015, 14:46
saumya12 wrote:
vikasbansal227 wrote:
This is regarding question 100.

Option C states that it is best way to sample total population of potential participants.

Can't we conclude C from lines 18-20, stating that "researchers enrol.... Thereby obtaining a more representative sample ".

I got trapped in option A and C, finally selected C because option A mention about " limited applicability of findings" while lines 18-21 only talks about "MORE representative sample"????

This does not mean that findings are of limited applicability.

Could someone please explain to me.

Actually Question 100 clearly asks us to limit ourselves to "bold section" (lines 21-23) and what is the "inference" of these lines, according to the passage. According to the passage, because researchers "restrict" study participation to only "certain" patients, this is "not" enabling researchers to evaluate a treatment's efficacy for diverse patients under various conditions and to evaluate its effectiveness for different patient subgroups.

This clearly means that currently, the findings of the research have limited applicability. This is what A says.

Coming to C, it says that "it would be the best way to sample the total population of potential patients". One thing that struck me about this optio was the term: "potential" patients. Not sure what "potential" means; my understanding is that "potential" patients would mean people who currently are not patients (means they do have a disease currently), but have a "potential" (say "genetically") to develop that disease. But, there is nothing about "potential patients" metnioned in the passage.

What do you think about this?


Sure, I'd be happy to offer you some guidance, vikasbansal227.

Here's the issue: it's critical to understand which party question 100 is asking us to make an inference about. Is is Frazier & Mosteller's proposal, or the traditional way?

Frazier and Mosteller propose not only that researchers limit data collection on individual patients but also that researchers enroll more patients in clinical trials, thereby obtaining a more representative sample of the total population with the disease under study. Often researchers restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied.

Question 100 is actually asking about the current, or traditional way of designing clinical trials. Now, given that the traditional way of building a sample in a clinical trial is to often "restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied". Take a look at the difference between A and C in that light:

100) Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about a study of the category of patients referred to in lines 21-23 (bold section)?
(A) Its findings might have limited applicability.

If the results only relate to those suffering from an ailment rather than the population in general, then it's findings MIGHT (key inference question word) have limited applicability. That has to be true. 100%

(C) It would be the best way to sample the total population of potential patients.
This is a trap answer for those who think question 100 is asking us about the Frazier and Mosteller proposal, but as we know, it's not. According to the passage, we can't infer that the traditional way of conducting clinical trials is THE BEST WAY to sample the total population of POTENTIAL patients, because the traditional approach is only to sample those with the illness. That wouldn't include POTENTIAL patients.. Get rid of C.
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New post 08 Jul 2016, 13:29
Regarding OG 102: This question requires an understanding of what the passage as a whole is doing.
The passage introduces Frazier and Mosteller as proposing changes to the ways
clinical trials in medical research are currently conducted. The rest of the passage
then describes these proposed changes together with the support Frazier and
Mosteller provide for adopting these changes.
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New post 15 Jul 2016, 02:18
passage 3'-total 10'

A(ExCv)A(BxEv)DD

101
can self-explain this one and figure out my fault.

104
Does such question require the understanding of the entire passage? Since all five options do not focus on one point or any specific sentence.
I'm not good at doing such kind of questions.

Can anyone provide some instructions? eg how to eliminate wrong ones and recognize the right one.

Many thanks,
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New post 31 Jul 2016, 16:01
cmatkar wrote:
For 103, I chose option D. Can anyone kindly explain me why is D wrong ?


For 103, D says that "Because they attempt to analyze too much information, they overlook facts that could emerge as relevant to their studies"

In the given passage: "Currently, researchers collect far more background information on patients than is strictly required for their trials-substantially more than hospitals collect-thereby escalating costs of data collection, storage, and analysis. Although limiting information collection could increase the risk that researchers will overlook facts relevant to a study.."- It means that currently researchers are collecting too much informations. But, if we want to limit information collection, there is a potential risk of overlooking facts which are not relevant to a study.

Hope it helps! ヾ(´□`* )ノ
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New post 18 Nov 2016, 05:22
tamira wrote:
cmatkar wrote:
For 103, I chose option D. Can anyone kindly explain me why is D wrong ?


For 103, D says that "Because they attempt to analyze too much information, they overlook facts that could emerge as relevant to their studies"

In the given passage: "Currently, researchers collect far more background information on patients than is strictly required for their trials-substantially more than hospitals collect-thereby escalating costs of data collection, storage, and analysis. Although limiting information collection could increase the risk that researchers will overlook facts relevant to a study.."- It means that currently researchers are collecting too much informations. But, if we want to limit information collection, there is a potential risk of overlooking facts which are not relevant to a study.

Hope it helps! ヾ(´□`* )ノ

For those wondering why 'D' is not the correct answer, the passage itself gives you the answer:
"Although limiting information collection could increase the risk that researchers will overlook facts relevant to a study, Frazier and Mosteller contend that such risk, never entirely eliminable from research"

Basically, no matter how much data you collect, you can never eliminate the risk of overlooking facts. In the first paragraph, all the author focuses is on cost, cost & cost!
_________________

If you analyze enough data, you can predict the future.....its calculating probability, nothing more!
Thank you Spike.

Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be   [#permalink] 18 Nov 2016, 05:22
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