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From the perspective of long-term survival, it was best for

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From the perspective of long-term survival, it was best for [#permalink] New post 27 Dec 2010, 19:08
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  45% (medium)

Question Stats:

37% (01:54) correct 62% (01:06) wrong based on 48 sessions
From the perspective of long-term survival, it was best for peasants in Czarist Russia to be weak. If they were strong, they would have been enlisted into the Czar's army against their will. Soldiers' lives were not highly valued by their commanders, and the bitter conditions and violent wars they endured led to a much shorter life span

Which of the following best describes a flaw in the argument above?


A) It assumes, without justification, that the only factor helping weak peasants survive longer was the fact that they were not enlisted into the army.

B) It overlooks the possibility that there were peasants of intermediate strength who enjoyed survival benefits greater than those of either the strong or the weak.


C) It assumes, without justification, that all strong peasants and all weak peasants of the time faced the same prospects in life.

I don't understand why OA is correct

This question is from grockit
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: From the perspective of long-term survival [#permalink] New post 28 Dec 2010, 00:43
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saxenashobhit wrote:
From the perspective of long-term survival, it was best for peasants in Czarist Russia to be weak. If they were strong, they would have been enlisted into the Czar's army against their will. Soldiers' lives were not highly valued by their commanders, and the bitter conditions and violent wars they endured led to a much shorter life span

Which of the following best describes a flaw in the argument above?


A) It assumes, without justification, that the only factor helping weak peasants survive longer was the fact that they were not enlisted into the army.

B) It overlooks the possibility that there were peasants of intermediate strength who enjoyed survival benefits greater than those of either the strong or the weak.


C) It assumes, without justification, that all strong peasants and all weak peasants of the time faced the same prospects in life.

I don't understand why OA is correct

This question is from grockit


if they dont want to die soon, the peasants had better be weak to live longer.
the assumtion should be " being weak helps the peasants live longer" which is A
i also dont understand why A is correct.
are you sure this is the correct answer choice from the grockit book?
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Re: From the perspective of long-term survival [#permalink] New post 17 Jan 2011, 23:08
a flaw in the argument is that not being enlisted into the army is the only factor helping weak peasants survive longer. In the premise there is no proper explanation why it is the only factor thereof and therefore it allows to ssume that there may be alternative reasons for longer live of peasants. Hence, IMO A.
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Re: From the perspective of long-term survival [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2011, 21:01
A-autor is making choice on both extremes.If in army,them pople don't live long.
If not in army,the may be great chance of live longer,but if they are not in army (because they are weak) then they are too weak to earn for living.and may be die in poverty.they can't do work because lack in strength.
B- sees the possibility that there must be other guys who are weak enough to not to be in army,but strong enough to make earning. this is correct choice
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Re: From the perspective of long-term survival [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2011, 21:34
in the test, i will definately choose A. i still do not understand how is B stronger... its comparing 2 different categories of people... and asking what is flaw here.

in my opinion, introducing 3rd category does not justify the flaw.
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Re: From the perspective of long-term survival, it was best for [#permalink] New post 26 Jul 2012, 10:56
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Re: From the perspective of long-term survival, it was best for [#permalink] New post 06 Jul 2013, 08:53
the key to cracking this question is understanding the importance of "best"- it was best for peasants in Czarist Russia to be weak. for ex. if an argument claims that "A" is the "best" way to crack gmat, then a way to weaken this argument is to contend that "B" is a better way to crack gmat. the same thing is happening here. the question says t hat being weak is the "best" way to survive, and we are negating the argument by stating that "moderate strenghth" is better than being weak.
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Re: From the perspective of long-term survival, it was best for [#permalink] New post 07 Jul 2013, 00:22
Quote:
From the perspective of long-term survival, it was best for peasants in Czarist Russia to be weak. If they were strong, they would have been enlisted into the Czar's army against their will. Soldiers' lives were not highly valued by their commanders, and the bitter conditions and violent wars they endured led to a much shorter life span

Which of the following best describes a flaw in the argument above?


A) It assumes, without justification, that the only factor helping weak peasants survive longer was the fact that they were not enlisted into the army.

B) It overlooks the possibility that there were peasants of intermediate strength who enjoyed survival benefits greater than those of either the strong or the weak.


C) It assumes, without justification, that all strong peasants and all weak peasants of the time faced the same prospects in life.

Frankly, I love this question. B is correct.

This question uses a very classical logic "if-then" + "Logical Opposition"

The form is:
If A, then B
Conclusion: if C, then Not B
Assumption: C is a logical opposition of A



ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

Hypothesis: IF strong peasants in Czarist Russia (CR) go into army, THEN they will have shorter life spans.
Conclusion: IF peasants in CR are weak, THEN they will have a longer life span.
Assumption of this argument: "WEAK peasants" is a logical opposition of “STRONG peasants”. Is this correct? Nope, It's totally WRONG.

For example: what is the logical opposition of hot?. Most people say "cold". It's wrong. The correct logical opposition of "hot" is "NOT hot".

** This is the same flaw of this argument. The correct logical opposition of “STRONG peasants” is "NOT STRONG peasants". But the argument says "to live longer, peasants should be WEAK". Must they be weak? No, "Not strong" is enough, for instance "intermediate strong".


ANALYZE EACH ANSWER:

A) It assumes, without justification, that the only factor helping weak peasants survive longer was the fact that they were not enlisted into the army.
Wrong. A says: “not go into army” helps WEAK peasants live longer. The fact helps ONLY weak people? How about intermediate strong peasants? The main conclusion is: Not go into army will help peasants (in general) live longer. A may be a correct ans if it say: "the only factor helping WEAK peasants survive longer was the fact that they were not enlisted into the army"

B) It overlooks the possibility that there were peasants of intermediate strength who enjoyed survival benefits greater than those of either the strong or the weak.
Correct. B shows one case of the logical opposition of “strong peasants” ==> "Intermediate strong peasants". B states the argument’s flaw. The argument maintains that strong peasants will have shorter life, thus they should be weak to have longer life. That’s incorrect logic. You just need “NOT STRONG peasants” (for example: intermediate strong, little above weak, etc.) You DO NOT need “WEAK”.

C) It assumes, without justification, that all strong peasants and all weak peasants of the time faced the same prospects in life.
Wrong. Definitely out of scope. Nothing about “they have same file span”, the argument just compare “strong” vs “weak” ==> That’s incorrect as stated above.


TAKEAWAY:
Logical Opposition of "X" is "NOT X"


Hope you enjoy this question.
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Re: From the perspective of long-term survival, it was best for   [#permalink] 07 Jul 2013, 00:22
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