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Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major

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Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 24 Apr 2010, 06:55
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326. Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 27 Apr 2010, 05:17
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326. Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among

From sudden fluctuations and 'tilting and other deformations' we can see that we need noun forms to complete the parallelism.

B,D,E provide noun forms for the first party of the sentence and C,D,E provide the noun form for the second part 'variations'. Only D provides the correct idiomatic use of 'variations in'. We can zero in on the answer D actually just based on 'variations in'

'Variation of' and 'Variations among' are both wrong use of variations. Damn ! ..Had to google that for long to confirm.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 29 Aug 2013, 00:19
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Marcab wrote:
Guys I would like to ask all of you that how can "sudden fluctuations" and "tilting" be parallel?
"tilting" is a simple gerund and "fluctuations" is an action noun, and according to MGMAT SC, simple gerunds and action nouns can't be parallel.
So the sentence goes like this:
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include [sudden fluctuations in( local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the earth's crust)], changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in/of the electrical properties of underground rocks.

Regarding the preposition, MGMAT says that there is no compulsion on the prepositions to be the same.

Correct me if I am wrong.
Verbal experts noburu, metallicafan, Tommy please help.


according to Manhattan SC:
simple gerund should be parallel to simple gerund ONLY
complex gerund can be parallel to action nouns

look at the answer choice D. in this example, we have following warning signs for a major earthquake: sudden fluctuation in local seismic activities, tilting of the Earth's crust, changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in the electrical properties of underground rocks. now examine words in bold - fluctuation is an action noun (from verb fluctuate), changes is an action noun (from verb change), variations is an action noun (from verb vary) and as for tilting of, it is a complex gerund phrase, since complex gerund phrases are "noun through and through", which means that if you look inside the phrase, you can not turn it into a working verb. for example, try to place some noun inside the phrase "tilting of the earth's crust", such as "earthquake is tilting of the earth's crust" - you will see that this sentence does not make sense, cause it can not be turned into working verb (because of having Of-preposition in the phrase).

to sum it up, three action nouns (fluctuation, changes, variation) and one complex gerund (tilting of) are made parallel. so correct answer choice is D.


hope it helps.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 24 Apr 2010, 08:07
D looks best of the lot... what is the OA ?
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 25 Apr 2010, 09:36
IMO D - due to parallelism
wats the OA ??
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 25 Apr 2010, 09:39
IMO D.

plural verb + adjective + noun
Only D survives this test.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 25 Apr 2010, 09:43
Ok guys, as far as I know, noboru is not going to like if you simply choose one of the answers from the list. You need to explain why do you think a particular answer is correct.

and yeah, noboru is known for NOT posting the OA for long time... :wink:
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 27 Apr 2010, 06:54
I picked (E) but now understand that "variations among" is wrong

Good explanation by sanlitun
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 27 Apr 2010, 14:00
326. Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
Here the fluctuations and changes are two independent signs and are equally important. Changes is not a sub warning sign. Hence it has to be changes.

(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying -Not parallel
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of-this is verbose compared to A, also changing
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in -
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among - This is also verbose compared to D.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 27 Apr 2010, 18:13
my choice is D as it is very clear and has no mistakes. I am not an SC expert so i can't write more.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 29 Apr 2010, 14:51
hgp2k wrote:
Ok guys, as far as I know, noboru is not going to like if you simply choose one of the answers from the list. You need to explain why do you think a particular answer is correct.

and yeah, noboru is known for NOT posting the OA for long time... :wink:


jeje, OK, you got it: OA is D.

Thank u all.

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 12 Sep 2010, 05:35
First of all, i cant understand this question at all. but i surely know that it has something to do with parallelism.. See how i cracked it.. :)

the sentence says that there is more than one sign..
First one, is clearly given in the sentence..
The participial phrase can't be the sign.. because, it only modifies the independent phrase, just before the comma.
So,
A - out (there is no additional sign)
B - out (there is no additional sign again)
C - out (because, one participial phrase cant modify another participial phrase)
D - this is correct for me.. (maintains the parallelism with the first sign.. and variations in is the correct idiom)
E - variations among is wrong.

I know that this is a crazy way to choose.. :)
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 12 Sep 2010, 05:53
Good question, it look familiar.. can you say what's the source?
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 12 Sep 2010, 10:37
noboru wrote:
326. Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among


to maintain ||ism we should look for nouns as the main sentence has Fluctuations, Deformations..
Only D and E have Changes and Variations.
Now variation in is correct not variations among is not

So D is correct
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2010, 01:40
The underlined portion at first seemed to confuse me because it appeared that "changing the measured strain across fault zone and varying the electrical..." could be the end result of deformation in the earth's crust. And hence option A nd B would become the contenders in that case.
However the "comma and" resolved my confusion. The four reasons indicated stand independent and option D maintains parallelism :)
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 23 Sep 2010, 08:07
The world "tilting" is surely a trap here though i feel
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2012, 23:42
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include
1. sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity,
2. tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and
3. varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

1, 2, 3 must match their form, which are nouns (fluctuations, tilting, variations): eliminate A, B

"changing-" describes the Earth's crust (so this is correct): eliminate D, E


Left with C
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 18 Oct 2012, 22:31
Expert's post
Guys I would like to ask all of you that how can "sudden fluctuations" and "tilting" be parallel?
"tilting" is a simple gerund and "fluctuations" is an action noun, and according to MGMAT SC, simple gerunds and action nouns can't be parallel.
So the sentence goes like this:
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include [sudden fluctuations in( local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the earth's crust)], changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in/of the electrical properties of underground rocks.

Regarding the preposition, MGMAT says that there is no compulsion on the prepositions to be the same.

Correct me if I am wrong.
Verbal experts noburu, metallicafan, Tommy please help.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 06 Jan 2014, 08:33
No, I wouldn't go that far away Marcab. "Tilting", in this case, is a noun - a noun participle to be precise.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major [#permalink] New post 22 Jun 2014, 21:54
This is OG Verbal 2nd edition SC Q#77

Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

The parallel list is:

1. sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity
2. tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust
3. changing the measured stain across a fault zone
4. varying the electrical properties of underground rocks

Changing and varying are in verb+ing form if we change it to changes… variations.
N.B titling is a Noun here.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major   [#permalink] 22 Jun 2014, 21:54
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