Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
Check GMAT Club App Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases http://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 10 Dec 2016, 07:11

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 05 Jan 2011
Posts: 178
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 116 [0], given: 8

Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 Mar 2011, 17:14
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00

Difficulty:

(N/A)

Question Stats:

48% (02:14) correct 52% (00:49) wrong based on 51 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting through volcanoes, but they now know that it is continuously created by the heat of the radioactivity deep inside the planet.

1.was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting
2.had been an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days and sporadically erupted
3.was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, which sporadically erupted
4.would be an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days that sporadically erupted
5.was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, having sporadically erupted
If you have any questions
New!
Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 920
Followers: 14

Kudos [?]: 331 [0], given: 123

### Show Tags

27 Mar 2011, 17:24
A is obvious because of the modifier.
Manager
Joined: 05 Jan 2011
Posts: 178
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 116 [0], given: 8

### Show Tags

27 Mar 2011, 18:10
gmat1220 wrote:
A is obvious because of the modifier.

gmat1220,
sporadically...... is adverbial modifier. It modifies was... in A. Do you think its logical?
Manager
Joined: 05 Jan 2011
Posts: 178
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 116 [0], given: 8

### Show Tags

27 Mar 2011, 19:55
brandy96 wrote:
Why not C?

brandy96,
I am with you . According to Ron's explanation
when you have "X of Y" before a modifier of this type, the modifier could potentially refer either to "Y" by itself or to the whole unit "X of Y". It's up to context to determine which.
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/post5311.html#p5311

So here which can refer back to underground remnant ...However MGMT says OA IS
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A
Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 920
Followers: 14

Kudos [?]: 331 [0], given: 123

### Show Tags

27 Mar 2011, 20:36
There is no problem. "ing" modifier modifier the previous clause.

C is wrong because of which. which is touching "days" when it should be modifying "lava"

Onell wrote:
gmat1220 wrote:
A is obvious because of the modifier.

gmat1220,
sporadically...... is adverbial modifier. It modifies was... in A. Do you think its logical?
Manager
Joined: 05 Jan 2011
Posts: 178
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 116 [0], given: 8

### Show Tags

27 Mar 2011, 23:34
gmat1220 wrote:
There is no problem. "ing" modifier modifier the previous clause.

C is wrong because of which. which is touching "days" when it should be modifying "lava"

Onell wrote:
gmat1220 wrote:
A is obvious because of the modifier.

gmat1220,
sporadically...... is adverbial modifier. It modifies was... in A. Do you think its logical?

I believe by saying "ing" modifier modifies the previous clause. you mean to say its an adverbial modifier and should modify the main verb of the previous clause and should provide answer to why, how and when questions?

Now Lets consider the first part of the sentence

[strike]Geologists once thought that[/strike] the molten rock known as lava was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting through volcanoes.

why was lava an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days ?.....

How was lava an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days ?....

When was lava an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days ?....definitely no answer

Regarding C Please have a look at Ron's explanation (for usage of which)@http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/post5311.html#p5311

Am I missing something?
Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 920
Followers: 14

Kudos [?]: 331 [0], given: 123

### Show Tags

28 Mar 2011, 02:42
Onell wrote:
Regarding C Please have a look at Ron's explanation (for usage of which)@http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/post5311.html#p5311
Am I missing something?

hello Onell
Pardon me. I may be loosing it. But what Ron said is only half true about "which". Read Stacey's explanation now - this is the gist. http://www.beatthegmat.com/which-usage-t42599-30.html

"which" cannot modify the preceding clause - only the preceding main noun. That's why, in this one, the correct answer switches the form to ", leading" - because "comma -ing" can actually modify the preceding clause

Btw nice finding. I read Ron a lot and then invented my ways to cut through the jungle. After all you can't spend more than 60 sec on sc on gday.
Manager
Joined: 14 Dec 2010
Posts: 218
Location: India
Concentration: Technology, Entrepreneurship
GMAT 1: 680 Q44 V39
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 35 [0], given: 5

### Show Tags

28 Mar 2011, 03:36
A it is.I got it by POE. We need a simple past tense here. So B and D are out.In C, the use of which indicated that 'earliest days' erupted. Similar in E. So A wins
Manager
Joined: 05 Jan 2011
Posts: 178
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 116 [0], given: 8

### Show Tags

28 Mar 2011, 03:43
gmat1220 wrote:
Onell wrote:
Regarding C Please have a look at Ron's explanation (for usage of which)@http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/post5311.html#p5311
Am I missing something?

hello Onell
Pardon me. I may be loosing it. But what Ron said is only half true about "which". Read Stacey's explanation now - this is the gist. http://www.beatthegmat.com/which-usage-t42599-30.html

"which" cannot modify the preceding clause - only the preceding main noun. That's why, in this one, the correct answer switches the form to ", leading" - because "comma -ing" can actually modify the preceding clause

Btw nice finding. I read Ron a lot and then invented my ways to cut through the jungle. After all you can't spend more than 60 sec on sc on gday.

gmat1220 ,
I am still confused,
Which can refer back to preceding noun or a noun phrase .
Check Stacey's post @ http://www.beatthegmat.com/which-usage-t42599-15.html#183984

So an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days is a noun phrase here and which can refer back to an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days .

I am just curious to know why we need modifier that modifies a entire preceding clause here?

Furthermore, According to Rons post @http://www.beatthegmat.com/which-usage-t42599-15.html#183920
COMMA + -ING modifier modifiers refer to the subject and action of the preceding clause, and imply a very specific relationship between the modifier and the action in that clause: the -ING action must be either
(1) simultaneous with AND subordinate to, or
(2) a direct and inevitable consequence of,

I dont think sporadically erupting through volcanoes is either a simultaneous or an inevitable consequence of the preceding clause? Can you please help me to understand .
Retired Moderator
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 3623
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Followers: 689

Kudos [?]: 5381 [0], given: 321

### Show Tags

28 Mar 2011, 05:22
Ron’s stand has been equivocal. His pronouncement is that
Quote:
which will refer either to "Y" by itself or to the whole unit "X of Y"
. Here the whole unit of X of Y is a noun phrase and not a clause. Stacey is more categorical on this. Stacey wrote:
Quote:
"Which” cannot modify the preceding clause - only the preceding main noun. That's why, in this one, the correct answer switches the form to ", leading" - because "comma -ing" can actually modify the preceding clause.

A relative pronoun ‘which’ can go only that far as a preceding phrase. But a participial modifier (the verb=ing form) can go much farther, modifying the entire previous clues. In
The given case, the author intends to refer the modifier, ‘sporadically erupting’ to the entire clause saying that the molten rock known as lava was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days. ...
Finally, why did MGMAT choose A as OA, outweighing Ron’s thesis? (Although both are from the same stable). I think it is because of the wonderful utility of a participial modifier such as verb+ing, which can be pulled as long as required.

I will impulsively ignore C and be happy with A.
_________________

“Better than a thousand days of diligent study is one day with a great teacher” – a Japanese proverb.
9884544509

Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 920
Followers: 14

Kudos [?]: 331 [0], given: 123

### Show Tags

28 Mar 2011, 06:29
I agree with daagh's interpretation. Stacey explanation makes more sense to me. Although Ron has a point I will weigh it depending on the sentence. I always suspect which after the comma.

Posted from my mobile device
Manager
Joined: 01 Jul 2009
Posts: 138
Location: India
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Strategy
GMAT 1: 680 Q48 V35
GPA: 3.8
WE: General Management (Retail)
Followers: 25

Kudos [?]: 486 [2] , given: 13

### Show Tags

28 Mar 2011, 13:00
2
KUDOS
This question seems to have opened the pandora's box

To sum it all up!!

EXCEPTION TO COMMA + WHICH RULE
Which, who, where - are noun modifiers - and noun modifiers, by definition, have to touch the noun they modify

The best approach here is to think of "which" as a special modifier that attaches even more strongly to the noun than other modifiers. As a result, unlike most modifiers, "which” isn’t as easy to separate from its noun by an intervening modifier? In ALMOST ALL cases, you are safe to eliminate any answer where the "which" doesn't refer to the word immediately preceding it regardless of whatever else is going on.

Exception. . .
when nouns that are modified by prepositional phrases (Preposition = of, above) ---> If, in “X preposition Y” construction ,”Y” can GRAMMATICALLY be the referent of “, which” then pick Y, else pick “X” (noun) or “X preposition Y” (noun phrase)

Examples . . .
1) The picture of my brothers, which was taken last year in Mexico, is one of my favorites
- Which cannot refer to brother, because brother needs “who”, so which can only refer to Picture in this case.

2) The picture above my fireplace, which was taken last year in Mexico , is my favorite
- Fireplace could not have been taken

3) Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson, which were written . . .

Pictorially speaking. . .
See attached image. . .

Summary. . .
- DO NOT extend this pattern to prepositional phrases in which the object-of-preposition COULD ACTUALLY BE the antecedent of "which” i.e. in “X preposition Y”, Y could be antecedent of “which”
- Also, comma + which refers noun immediately preceding it or at best can refer to "noun phrase" represented by “X preposition Y”. But it can never refer back to "whole clause" . . .

Damn. . . this crazy!!

Target760
Attachments

pic.jpg [ 8.88 KiB | Viewed 1547 times ]

_________________

i love kudos consider giving them if you like my post!!

http://gmatclub.com/forum/critical-reasoning-for-beginners-82111.html
QUANT NOTES FOR PS & DS: notes to help you do better in Quant. Click Below
http://gmatclub.com/forum/quant-notes-for-ps-ds-82447.html
GMAT Timing Planner: This little tool could help you plan timing strategy. Click Below
http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-cat-timing-planner-82513.html

Last edited by Target760 on 28 Mar 2011, 22:27, edited 4 times in total.
Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 920
Followers: 14

Kudos [?]: 331 [0], given: 123

### Show Tags

28 Mar 2011, 17:04
Target760 if you ever write a book I will read it thanks...,

Posted from my mobile device
Manager
Joined: 05 Jul 2010
Posts: 204
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 18 [0], given: 18

### Show Tags

28 Mar 2011, 18:12
Thanks daagh. Good Summarization! With all the above discussion now I am more clear on ", which" versus "-ing"
Manager
Joined: 01 Jul 2009
Posts: 138
Location: India
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Strategy
GMAT 1: 680 Q48 V35
GPA: 3.8
WE: General Management (Retail)
Followers: 25

Kudos [?]: 486 [0], given: 13

### Show Tags

28 Mar 2011, 22:02
gmat1220 wrote:
Target760 if you ever write a book I will read it thanks...,

Posted from my mobile device

thanks!!

have added a pictoral representation too! just being creative

caio!
_________________

i love kudos consider giving them if you like my post!!

http://gmatclub.com/forum/critical-reasoning-for-beginners-82111.html
QUANT NOTES FOR PS & DS: notes to help you do better in Quant. Click Below
http://gmatclub.com/forum/quant-notes-for-ps-ds-82447.html
GMAT Timing Planner: This little tool could help you plan timing strategy. Click Below
http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-cat-timing-planner-82513.html

Re: underground remnant   [#permalink] 28 Mar 2011, 22:02
Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
6 Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava 8 31 Jul 2014, 21:28
10 Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava 22 20 Oct 2009, 16:09
Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava 16 03 Jul 2008, 21:14
Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava 3 16 Jul 2007, 17:49
Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava 5 27 Jun 2007, 20:35
Display posts from previous: Sort by