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# Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava

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Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2012, 12:44
1
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45% (medium)

Question Stats:

56% (02:09) correct 44% (01:05) wrong based on 275 sessions

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Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting through volcanoes, but they now know that it is continuously created by the heat of the radioactivity deep inside the planet.

A. was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting
B.had been an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days and sporadically erupted
C.was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, which sporadically erupted
D.would be an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days that sporadically erupted
E.was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, having sporadically erupted
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2012, 23:11
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A. was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting ------ seems good with the present participle modifying the molten rock / remnant

B.had been an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days and sporadically erupted --- using past participle for a phenomenon that still occurs is wrong.

C.was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, which sporadically erupted ---- earliest days, which sporadically erupted – pronoun touch rule error

D.would be an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days that sporadically erupted ---- that sporadically erupted – wrong modification

E. was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, having sporadically erupted ---- having sporadically erupted—may imply that the remnant has ceased to erupt these days.

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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2012, 11:26
Please tell me what is wrong with my train of thought:

I thought B because the geologists "once thought". Therefore they once thought that something had been something previously...therefore need past perfect?

The reason I am having trouble formulating my thoughts is because of a gmatpill framework. The sentence was "I saw my mother struggling through the door but remembered that I had promised to help her". The sentence needed "had" because "remember" is a word that signals a partition in the tense. My explanation probably just butchered the actual reason but I'm just alt+tabbing at work and can't really bring up the video.
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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2012, 12:36
Injuin wrote:
Please tell me what is wrong with my train of thought:

I thought B because the geologists "once thought". Therefore they once thought that something had been something previously...therefore need past perfect?

The reason I am having trouble formulating my thoughts is because of a gmatpill framework. The sentence was "I saw my mother struggling through the door but remembered that I had promised to help her". The sentence needed "had" because "remember" is a word that signals a partition in the tense. My explanation probably just butchered the actual reason but I'm just alt+tabbing at work and can't really bring up the video.

Just that the sentence happened to have once thought or some other word or phrase do not assume that it must be in a perfect tense. Understand the meaning and only when you find 2 actions that not inseperable and yet could not be put in a sequence, then alone use perfect tenses
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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2012, 17:42
Only use past perfect when you need to distinguish 2 events that occurred in the past. Since we only have 1 event that occurred in the past, we do not need to use the past perfect form. Instead of past perfect, use simple past. Only use past perfect if it is absolutely necessary.
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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 12:19
Injuin wrote:
Please tell me what is wrong with my train of thought:

I thought B because the geologists "once thought". Therefore they once thought that something had been something previously...therefore need past perfect?

The reason I am having trouble formulating my thoughts is because of a gmatpill framework. The sentence was "I saw my mother struggling through the door but remembered that I had promised to help her". The sentence needed "had" because "remember" is a word that signals a partition in the tense. My explanation probably just butchered the actual reason but I'm just alt+tabbing at work and can't really bring up the video.

.......................X.......................Y : Let the entire number line be in PAST

So 2 events both in Past : 1. X and 2. Y

and X before Y

For such cases : 1. use past perfect with X , 2. Use simple past with Y

The question in discussion :

-------------------You promised ( X )------------you remembered ( Y ) : THE ENTIRE NUMBER LINE IS IN PAST

Now, X before Y

Thus use : 1.Past perfect with Promised ie HAD PROMISED , 2. Simple past with Remember ie REMEMBERED

Leading to the logical str : I remembered ( Simple Past - Later action ) That I had promised ( Past perfect- Previous action ) to help my mom

Eg ; .........revised tense chapter.............answered the post......... : all in Past

thus the str : I had reviewed (PP ) the tense chapter before I answered (SP) the post
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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2012, 16:13
A. Sporadically erupting is in line with the present tense form ‘it is continuously created’
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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2012, 20:52
sudi03 wrote:
Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting through volcanoes, but they now know that it is continuously created by the heat of the radioactivity deep inside the planet.

A. was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting
B.had been an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days and sporadically erupted - use of had not required
C.was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, which sporadically erupted - which -> pronoun error
D.would be an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days that sporadically erupted -> wrong use of would + wrong use of that
E.was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, having sporadically erupted - it doesnt happen anymore
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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2012, 22:56
daagh wrote:
A. was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting ------ seems good with the present participle modifying the molten rock / remnant

B.had been an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days and sporadically erupted --- using past participle for a phenomenon that still occurs is wrong.

C.was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, which sporadically erupted ---- [b]earliest days, which sporadically erupted – pronoun touch rule error [/b]

D.would be an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days that sporadically erupted ---- that sporadically erupted – wrong modification

E. was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, having sporadically erupted ---- having sporadically erupted—may imply that the remnant has ceased to erupt these days.

I hav a log time pending doubt.. Someone Pl clarify.. In option C, 'Which' is said to modify 'earliest days'.. But my understanding is that 'which' can also modify the noun of the preceding prepositional phrase.. In this case, 'which' can modify 'underground remnant'.. Is this way of modification correct.. Can 'which' modify the head of the prep phrase??
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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2012, 23:40
friend29 wrote:
daagh wrote:
A. was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting ------ seems good with the present participle modifying the molten rock / remnant

B.had been an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days and sporadically erupted --- using past participle for a phenomenon that still occurs is wrong.

C.was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, which sporadically erupted ---- [b]earliest days, which sporadically erupted – pronoun touch rule error [/b]

D.would be an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days that sporadically erupted ---- that sporadically erupted – wrong modification

E. was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, having sporadically erupted ---- having sporadically erupted—may imply that the remnant has ceased to erupt these days.

I hav a log time pending doubt.. Someone Pl clarify.. In option C, 'Which' is said to modify 'earliest days'.. But my understanding is that 'which' can also modify the noun of the preceding prepositional phrase.. In this case, 'which' can modify 'underground remnant'.. Is this way of modification correct.. Can 'which' modify the head of the prep phrase??

which modifies the noun ( read subject ) just before the comma before it. Here the noun( subject is Earths' earliest days ), hence wrong use of which.

however, what you state can also be true.
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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2014, 11:58
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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2015, 21:19
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava   [#permalink] 03 Nov 2015, 21:19
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