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GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure

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GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 22 Jun 2010, 05:58
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BASIC ENGLISH SENTENCE STRUCTURE


This post is a part of [GMAT GRAMMAR BOOK]

created by: bb
edited by: dzyubam



SubjectVerbComplementModifier
Darrelwrotea novellast year
Theyrodebicyclesto school


Subject


The subject is the actor of a sentence in active voice. It is the person or thing that performs, or is responsible for, the action of the sentence. It usually begins the sentence and precedes the verb.

Every sentence in English must have a subject. Commands will not have a visible subject, however, the subject [you] is understood. Example: Run quickly! = You run quickly! (See more under Commands in Chapter 14.)

The subject can be a single noun.

Cats chase mice.
Children like candy.

The subject can also be a noun phrase, which is a group of words ending with a noun. A noun phrase CANNOT begin with a preposition. (See more under Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases in Chapter 12).

The car is in the garage.
That hot red dress looks fabulous.

Examples of subjects:

Tom likes to go fishing.
The English teacher is a very nice person.
Susan and Alex went to the movie together.
Those boys are good basketball players.
We actors are a happy group.


Verb


The verb follows the subject when the sentence is declarative. A verb normally reveals the action of the sentence. Every sentence in English must have a verb.

The verb can be a single word.

Mary likes chocolate cake.
They play soccer.

The verb can also be a verb phrase. A verb phrase contains one, or more, auxiliary verbs and one main verb. The main verb is always preceded by the auxiliary verbs. (See more about verb structure in Chapter 5.)

Martha has been talking to her new friend.
Terry is visiting his aunt today.

Examples of verbs and verb phrases:

Jerry has returned from lunch.
The storm made a lot of noise.
George is playing in a tournament tomorrow.
I will go to bed soon.
Sally was jealous of Lisa’s new dress.


Complement (Object)


The object may be a person or thing affected by the action described in the verb.

A complement (object) provides more information about the verb. Often, it consists of a noun, or noun phrase, and will usually follow the verb in a sentence relaying active voice.

A complement (object) CANNOT begin with a preposition. (See more under Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases in Chapter 12).

A complement (object) answers the question what? or whom?

Examples of complements:

Jack threw the stone far. (What did Jack throw?)
The hungry bird ate a worm. (What did the bird eat?)
He called Janice after the party. (Whom did he call?)
She was chewing gum in class. (What was she chewing?)
The ball hit Mike during the game last night. (Whom did the ball hit?)


Modifier


A modifier tells the time, place, or manner of action. The modifier usually follows the complement. Not every sentence requires a modifier.

Prepositional phrases are commonly used as modifiers (See more under Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases in Chapter 12).

Examples of prepositional phrases:

under the house, after breakfast, in the morning

Adverbs and adverbial phrases are also used as modifiers, or modifiers of time. A modifier of time will usually come last when more than one modifier is used.

Examples of adverbs and adverbial phrases:

yesterday, quickly, last semester, overhead, quite awful

A modifier answers the question of where? when? or how?

Examples of modifiers:

She is earning her degree at Cornell University. (Where is she earning her degree?)
John fell down the stairs (Where did John fall?)
yesterday. (When did John fall?)
The cheetah was running quite fast. (How was the cheetah running?)
We have an appointment at ten o’clock tomorrow. (When do we have an appointment?)
The soldier fired the gun repeatedly. (How did the soldier fire the gun?)


Exercise 1: Identifying Subject, Verb, Complement and Modifier


Mark the subject, verb, complement and modifier in the following sentences. Use an “S” for subject, “V” for verb, “C” for complement and “M” for modifier. NOTE: Remember that not all sentences have a complement or modifier. Also, some sentences can have more than one modifier.

Examples:
Juanis eatingtacosat the new restaurant.
SVCM

The girlsare talking tothe boys.
SVC

Madonnais performingtonight.
SVM


  1. Jerry opened his present.
  2. Mr. Johnson drinks coffee every morning.
  3. Birds fly.
  4. The dog chased the cat up the tree.
  5. The wind blew violently.
  6. Jimmy scored a goal at the soccer match last Saturday.
  7. They ran inside quickly.
  8. Bill, George and Alice bought CDs at the music store today.
  9. The barrel rolled down the hill.
  10. Terry is watching television.





Think something is missing? Let us know - Help Improve GMAT Club's Grammar Book Project!
This post is a part of [GMAT GRAMMAR BOOK]

Last edited by dzyubam on 01 Sep 2010, 23:38, edited 7 times in total.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2010, 21:19
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dzyubam wrote:

BASIC ENGLISH SENTENCE STRUCTURE


This post is a part of [GMAT GRAMMAR BOOK]

created by: bb
edited by: dzyubam

Madonnais performingtonight.
SVC




First of all i would like to thank bb and dzyubam for this Grammar Book.. gr8 initiative..
Isn't in the above sentence , Tonight answers the Question : When so it should be a Modifier and not a Complement.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2010, 21:47
easy to understand
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2010, 23:35
Thanks, corrected. +1.
sag wrote:
First of all i would like to thank bb and dzyubam for this Grammar Book.. gr8 initiative..
Isn't in the above sentence , Tonight answers the Question : When so it should be a Modifier and not a Complement.

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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 03 Jul 2010, 22:45
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dzyubam wrote:

Exercise 1: Identifying Subject, Verb, Complement and Modifier



The girlsare talkingto the boys.
SVM




In the above statement isnt to the boys a complement? It answers the girls are talking "to whom".
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 06 Jul 2010, 00:23
I've corrected that one to be "C". I'm not 100% sure though...
anshumanbhatia wrote:
dzyubam wrote:

Exercise 1: Identifying Subject, Verb, Complement and Modifier



The girlsare talkingto the boys.
SVM




In the above statement isnt to the boys a complement? It answers the girls are talking "to whom".

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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 26 Aug 2010, 12:27
Thanks mate +1
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2010, 19:06
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dzyubam wrote:

Complement (Object)


A complement (object) provides more information about the verb. Often, it consists of a noun, or noun phrase, and will usually follow the verb in a sentence relaying active voice.


Just a suggestion. Would it help identify "Object" a bit more easily if we add the following to define object. "The object is the person or thing affected by the action described in the verb."

Eg: "He opened the box. "- here the box is the object as it is the thing being affected by the verb to open.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2010, 23:36
Thanks, resh! +1 Kudos. I will add it to the post.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 06 Nov 2010, 02:21
Hi I have a confusion in answer to question 7 They ran inside quickly.

according to me "inside" should be a modifier not an object/complement as it answers "where?".Please explain.

Also with question 9:The barrel rolled down the hill.

Here please explain why can't i think that hill is object and down is modifier.Please help me clear my doubt.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 28 Nov 2010, 14:22
utin wrote:
Hi I have a confusion in answer to question 7 They ran inside quickly.

according to me "inside" should be a modifier not an object/complement as it answers "where?".Please explain.


I have the same question. Why is inside a Complement and not a Modifier?

I can understand that the question can be "What did they do?" "they ran inside". In which case it is a complement.

But if we ask "where did they run to?" then the ans is "inside". In this case it seems more likely to be a Modifier. This is what came more naturally to me. So i thought there are 2 modifiers in this statement - inside and quickly.

Can someone pls help clarify what i'm doing wrong?
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 19 Jan 2011, 19:40
I have the same question for #7
Similar to "They ran home in terror" answers where? Home and manner? in terror.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 31 Jan 2011, 18:48
dreambeliever wrote:
utin wrote:
Hi I have a confusion in answer to question 7 They ran inside quickly.

according to me "inside" should be a modifier not an object/complement as it answers "where?".Please explain.


I have the same question. Why is inside a Complement and not a Modifier?

I can understand that the question can be "What did they do?" "they ran inside". In which case it is a complement.

But if we ask "where did they run to?" then the ans is "inside". In this case it seems more likely to be a Modifier. This is what came more naturally to me. So i thought there are 2 modifiers in this statement - inside and quickly.

Can someone pls help clarify what i'm doing wrong?


I agree. I believe "inside" should be modifier.

Also if you were to ask what did they do? Answer would be they ran. This question is really asking what did the subject (they) do? The answer would be the verb (ran) , which makes sense no?

Where did they ran? Inside (this should be modifier and not an object).

Could someone please clarify?
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2011, 07:50
Where are the answers for the 10 questions in Exercise 1. I need to review my answer.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2011, 10:37
tkkarthick wrote:
Where are the answers for the 10 questions in Exercise 1. I need to review my answer.


Hi Guys,

Thanks a ton for the excellent post. I have the same question as above, where can i get the answers?

take care.

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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 16 Nov 2011, 02:06
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Please,download the PDF version of the book. You will get all the answers of the exercise.
Or check out the following answers:

1. Jerry / opened / his present.
S V C
2. Mr. Johnson / drinks / coffee / every morning.
S V C M
3. Birds / fly.
S V
4. The dog / chased / the cat / up the tree.
S V C M
5. The wind / blew / violently.
S V M
6. Jimmy / scored / a goal / at the soccer match / last Saturday.
S V C M M
7. They / ran / inside / quickly.
S V M M
8. Bill, George and Alice / bought / CDs / at the music store / today.
S V C M M
9. The barrel / rolled / down the hill.
S V M
10. Terry / is watching / television.
S V C
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2012, 00:12
Thanks, that was helpful!
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure [#permalink] New post 24 Sep 2012, 06:01
In Question 7 They ran inside quickly. shouldn't "inside" be a modifier
Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Basic English Sentence Structure   [#permalink] 24 Sep 2012, 06:01
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