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GMAT Grammar Book: Comparisons

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GMAT Grammar Book: Comparisons [#permalink] New post 23 Jul 2010, 14:00

COMPARISONS


This post is a part of [GMAT GRAMMAR BOOK]

created by: bb
edited by: dzyubam


Comparisons use adjectives and adverbs to indicate degrees of difference, which can be equal or unequal.

Equal Comparisons


An equal comparison shows that two entities are exactly the same, if positive, or not the same, if negative. The word as is used on either side of the adjective or adverb.

Mary is as tall as her sister. OR Mary is not as tall as her sister.

Sometimes, the word so is used in the first position of a negative comparison.

Mary is not so tall as her sister.

NOTE: In correct English, a subject pronoun is always used after the comparison phrase. This is often misused in speech.

Mary is as tall as she. You are not as old as I.

Examples of equal comparisons:

My brother is as big as an ox. (adjective)
Robert is as intelligent as Jane. (adjective)
That sprinter runs as fast as a cheetah. (adverb)
Our choir sings as well as yours. (adverb)

Sometimes, nouns can be used in comparative phrases of equality by using the same in front of it.

My car runs the same speed as yours. My car runs as fast as yours.

Their party ran the same length as the concert. Their party ran as long as the concert.

NOTE: The opposite of the same as is different from. You should never use different than.

My ice cream is different from yours.
Their uniforms are different from ours.

Unequal Comparisons


Unequal comparatives show that there is a greater or lesser degree of difference.

The word than is always used at the end of the comparative, unless the object has already been established and is known.

My brother is bigger than your brother. OR My brother is bigger. (object known)

The following rules generally apply to this type of comparative.
• Add –er to the adjective or adverb base of most one and two syllable words. (fast = faster; tall = taller; smart = smarter)
• When the adjective or adverb has three or more syllables then you add the word more without changing the adjective or adverb. (more important; more gorgeous; more intelligent)
• Also, use more with words ending in these suffixes: -ed, -ing, -ful, -ous, -ish. (more enraged, more careful, more caring, more porous, more bullish)
• With one-syllable words that end in a single consonant and are preceded by a single vowel, the consonant is doubled before adding –er (with the exception of w, x and z). (hot = hotter; big = bigger; red = redder)
• When a word ends in a consonant + y, change the y to I and add –er. (clumsy = clumsier, funny = funnier, dry = drier)

NOTE: The suffix –er means the same as more. It is incorrect to use them together. You can NOT say: more nicer, more uglier, more faster

Using much or far before the unequal comparative intensifies the meaning even more.

Your outfit is far more fashionable than mine.
A jet is much faster than a plane.
Silver is much less desirable than gold.

Nouns can also be used in comparisons, but the correct determiners must be used with countable or uncountable nouns.

Countable nouns use more, fewer, less + noun + than

He has more comics than me.

Non-countable nouns use many, much, little, less + noun + as

They have as much food as we.

Examples of countable and non-countable nouns used in comparatives:

Emily has as little money as I. (non-countable)
I have fewer coins than Emily. (countable)
My friend doesn’t have as much work as Sam. (non-countable)
I have more classes than my friend. (countable)

Positives, Comparatives and Superlatives


Most adjectives have three forms: the positive (sad), the comparative (sadder) and the superlative (saddest).

If the adjective has three or more syllables then it will usually begin with more or less, or most or least, without changing the adjective. Study the following chart.

POSITIVECOMPARATIVESUPERLATIVE
largelargerlargest
prettyprettierprettiest
intelligentless intelligentleast intelligent
beautifulmore beautifulmost beautiful


Adverbs are also sometimes used as comparatives and superlatives. Usually, adverbs have three or more syllables. If so, they are used with more or less for the comparative and most or least for the superlative.

She worked more painstakingly than Ralph. (comparative)
He behaved more comically than all the other clowns. (comparative)
That bull acts the most chaotic of all. (superlative)
That kid cries the most pitifully of all the rest. (superlative)

The positive doesn’t show any comparison, but simply describes the quality of a person, group, or thing.

The girl is pretty.
The doctor is smart.

The comparative shows a greater, or lesser, degree of difference between two people, groups, or things. The word than is used if the object of comparison is mentioned. It is not needed if the object of comparison is understood.

His dad is taller than yours. OR His dad is taller.
This disease is more contagious than that one. OR This disease is more contagious.
Martin is less dynamic than his brother. OR Martin is less dynamic.

The superlative compares three or more people, groups, or things and shows which one is superior, or inferior, to the others.

Sally is the nicest girl in our class.
Ralph is the most successful graduate of our school.
This computer is the least expensive of all of them.

The phrase “one of the” is commonly used with superlative form to show that one person, group, or thing out of a number of people, groups, or things is the most, or least. When this phrase is used, the “group” noun is plural while the verb is singular.

One of the fastest planes in the world is the Concord.
Mohammad Ali is one of the greatest boxers in the world.

Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives


A few adjectives and superlatives used in comparative and superlative phrases are irregular.
Study the examples in the chart below.

ADJECTIVE OR ADVERBCOMPARATIVESUPERLATIVE
Farfarther OR furtherfarthest OR furthest
Littlelessleast
Much or manymoremost
Good or wellbetterbest
Bad or badlyworseworst


Examples of irregular comparatives and superlatives:

Sally’s cooking is much better than Mary’s.
My car is running worse now than it did yesterday.
I live farther away than you.
Why do these shoes cost less than those?

Numbered Comparatives


Numbered comparatives can include such words or phrases as: half, twice, three times, four times, etc. The phrase as much as is used for non-countable nouns and as many as is used for countable nouns. The phrase more than is NOT used with numbered comparatives. It is incorrect to say four times more than, etc.

This rock weighs twice as much as that one.
Ronald has four times as much money as Paul.
The cat had half as many kittens as before.

Double Comparatives


When a sentence begins with a comparative structure then the second clause must also begin with a comparative.

The harder you study, the easier the class will be.
The sooner you get to work, the earlier you can go home.
The more you resist, the harder it will be.
The more he studied, the better he got at Math.

No Sooner


If the phrase no sooner begins a sentence, the word than must begin the second clause. Also, notice that the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject in this sentence structure.

No sooner had Lisa hung out the laundry than it began to rain.
No sooner will I receive my check than it will all be spent on bills.
No sooner had he began the competition than he felt a tear in his leg muscle.

Exercise 21: Using Comparisons


Fill in the blank with the correct form of the adjectives and adverbs in parentheses. Supply any other words that may be necessary. Pay attention to the words as and than for guidance.

1. This bowl of soup is __________________ (hot) than the last bowl.
2. She acts ___________________ (well) as Sandra Bullock.
3. Jerry’s pet is ____________________ (exotic) than Sue’s.
4. Your graduation gift is ____________________ (good) than mine.
5. My job is ______________________ (serious) as yours.
6. He was ______________________ (determined) than Joe to win the race.
7. Charlie has grown __________________________ (tall) as his brother.
8. She was ________________________ (shock) as I to see the test results.
9. Johnny was ________________________ (truthful) than before in telling his story.
10. I feel _________________________(bad) today than yesterday.

Exercise 22: Using Comparisons: Than, As, From


Fill in the blank with the correct comparative word of than, as, or from.

1. A cat is much quicker ______________ a mouse.
2. The dolphins swam as fast _______________ our boat.
3. Jennifer was much more certain of the answer ______________ Julie.
4. My twin cousin is indistinguishable ______________ the other.
5. Unmanned rockets can now travel much further _____________ the moon.
6. John’s speech was much different _______________ mine.
7. The ball game continued much longer ______________ expected.
8. Our cheerleaders were as good _______________ theirs.
9. Nathan was stronger ______________ Michael, so he won the match.
10. I think crumpets are much tastier ______________ crepes.





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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Comparisons [#permalink] New post 01 Aug 2010, 04:40
Exercise 22: Using Comparisons: Than, As, From

Answers:
1 than
2 as
3 than
4 from
5 than (not sure!)
6 from
7 than
8 as
9 than
10 than
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Comparisons [#permalink] New post 30 Aug 2010, 16:24
kudos!
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Comparisons [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2011, 20:23
Question on usage of pronouns.

1) He has more comics than me.
Here - Subject - He
Object - me (objective case)

2) They have as much food as we.
Here - Subject - They
Object - we (nominative case??)

Why is the case of the object different in the above two sentences?

Is it because "as" gives an answer to same or not same while "than" shows a greater or lesser degree?

Please help. I am really confused about this one.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Comparisons [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2011, 22:49
kissthegmat wrote:
Exercise 22: Using Comparisons: Than, As, From

Answers:
1 than
2 as
3 than
4 from
5 than (not sure!)
6 from
7 than
8 as
9 than
10 than


Is the correct answer to # 6 "from"(per the above post) or "than"(per the pdf).
6. John’s speech was much different __than__ mine.

Also, can someone please explain which of the two, from or than is correct and why.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Comparisons [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2014, 00:40
hello guys,

Non-countable nouns use many, much, little, less + noun + as

is " many " an exception of the rule ? because many used for countable things.
Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Comparisons   [#permalink] 18 Sep 2014, 00:40
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