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GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives

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GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 06 Aug 2010, 12:31
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Gerunds and Infinitives


This post is a part of [GMAT GRAMMAR BOOK]

created by: bb
edited by: dzyubam


A gerund is the “ing” form of a verb that is used as a noun in the subject or object (complement) position.

Fishing (subject) is (verb) fun. Here, the “ing” form of the verb to fish is the subject.

He (subject) enjoys (verb) fishing (object). Here, the gerund fishing is the object (complement).

He’s excited about (prep.) fishing (object). Here, fishing is the object of the preposition.

An infinitive is the simple, base form of the verb preceded by to (to + verb) as in to fish.

Gerunds as Subjects


If a sentence begins with a gerund then the verb must be singular.

Telling a lie got him into a great deal of trouble.
Surfing is a popular sport along coastal areas.
Taking good photos is a good way to make extra money.
Eating during depressed periods makes her feel better.

Noun + Preposition Followed by a Gerund


Certain nouns, when followed by certain prepositions, are always followed by a gerund. Consider the following samples in the chart below.

choice of
intention of
possibility of
excuse for
method for (of)
reason for


He was given the choice of staying after school or being expelled.
Stacey had no intention of doing her homework.
Walter has developed a special method of cleaning clothes.
There was absolutely no reason for skipping class.
Our class considered the possibility of getting out early.

Whenever a preposition is followed directly by a verb, the verb will be in gerund form.

Molly felt very sick after eating at the new restaurant.
Before leaving the house, Mark had to feed the animals.

Verbs Always Followed by a Gerund


Some verbs are always followed by a gerund. Following is a list of the most common.

admit
discuss
miss
resent
appreciate
enjoy
postpone
resist
avoid
finish
practice
resume
consider
keep
quit
risk
delay
mention
recall (remember)
suggest
deny
mind
report


The thief has admitted stealing the jewelry from the store.
You should delay travelling until the weather clears up.
Did Jack mention picking up the dry cleaning after work?
I don’t recall telling her that.
John suggested feeding the homeless on the weekends.

Adjective + Preposition Followed by a Gerund


The adjectives + prepositions in the box below are commonly followed by a gerund.

accustomed to
capable of
intent on
successful in
afraid of
fond of
interest in
tired of


Darrell is accustomed to going to the gym each day after class.
Both of my sisters are afraid of being alone in the dark.
You are capable of playing guitar much better.
Maggie is quite fond of eating chocolate.
The climbing team was intent on reaching the top of the mountain.
They were interested in seeing the test results.
Susie was successful in finding her hidden friends.
My dad is tired of working such long hours.

Pronouns before a Gerund or Infinitive


Sometimes, the infinitive is used as a complement after certain verbs. An indirect object pronoun is required before the infinitive in these sentences.

subject + verb + complement form + [pronoun OR noun] + to + verb . . .


Verbs commonly followed by an infinitive which usually require an indirect object are listed in the chart below.


allow
expect
permit
remind
ask
instruct
persuade
urge
beg
invite
prepare
want
convince
order
promise


Jennifer begged them to take her to the movies too.
The teacher expected them to act differently.
Julie’s mother prepared her to compete in the talent show.
Terry wanted her to go to the dance with him.

However, when a noun or pronoun precedes a gerund, it must be in the possessive form in formal English. Informal English usually does not use the possessive form before a gerund.

subject + verb + [possessive noun form OR possessive adjective] + verb + ing (gerund)


They resented his not telling the truth. FORMAL
They resented him not telling the truth. INFORMAL

Our neighbors complained about our playing loud music. FORMAL
Our neighbors complained about us playing loud music. INFORMAL

She couldn’t understand his not wanting to dance with her. FORMAL
She couldn’t understand him not wanting to dance with her. INFORMAL

The policeman didn’t like Michael’s arguing with him. FORMAL
The policeman didn’t like Michael arguing with him. INFORMAL

We resented the man’s telling us to leave the store. FORMAL
We resented the man telling us to leave the store. INFORMAL

Verbs Always Followed by an Infinitive


Some verbs are always followed by an infinitive. Following is a list of some of the most common.

agree to
desire to
hope to
seem to
attempt to
expect to
intend to
strive to
claim to
fail to
learn to
tend to
decide to
forget to
pretend to
want to
demand to
hesitate to
refuse to
wish to


Jordan claims to be a relative of George Washington.
My parents expect to retire this year.
Don’t hesitate to throw the ball next time!
My little brother pretends to fight dangerous dragons.
Mary strives to receive straight A’s in school.

Adjectives Followed by an Infinitive


Following is a list of adjectives which can be immediately followed by an infinitive form of the verb.

amazed to
eager to
motivated to
sad to
anxious to
fortunate to
pleased to
sorry to
ashamed to
glad to
prepared to
strange to
astonished to
happy to
proud to
surprised to
certain to
hard to
ready to
(un)usual to
dangerous to
hesitant to
relieved to
upset to
delighted to
lucky to
reluctant to
willing to


George was anxious to begin the project.
Monica was glad to discover she had passed the exam.
The children were hesitant to enter the haunted house.
Betty’s parents were relieved to learn that she wasn’t hurt in the accident.
I am willing to help with feeding the poor on the weekends.

NOTE: Able means the same as capable in most cases. However, able is always followed by a infinitive while capable is followed by of + gerund.

Shelly is able to play the violin much better than Andy.
Shelly is capable of playing the violin much better than Andy.

Exercise 25: Using Gerunds and Infinitives


Correctly fill in the blanks in the following sentences with either the gerund or infinitive form of the verb in parentheses.

1. She isn’t accustomed to (drink) _______________________ water with her meals.
2. I’m prepared (answer) _______________________ any question that might be required during my interview.
3. John was (hope) _____________________ to receive a scholarship for his efforts.
4. They agreed (cooperate) ______________________ with the investigation.
5. Kelly opened the window (let) ______________________ in some fresh air.
6. (Live) _______________________ in a large city can be stressful.
7. I’ll help you as soon as I finish (mow) ______________________ the lawn.
8. Did you remember (deliver) _________________________ the package before going to work?
9. Ivan took a deep breath (relax) _______________________ himself before taking the stage.
10. The policeman couldn’t tolerate his (run) _______________________ away.





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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 09 Aug 2010, 07:11
Correctly fill in the blanks in the following sentences with either the gerund or infinitive form of the verb in parentheses.

1. She isn’t accustomed to (drink) _______________________ water with her meals.
2. I’m prepared ____________to answer___________ any question that might be required during my interview.
3. John was (hope) __hoping___________________ to receive a scholarship for his efforts.
4. They agreed (cooperate) to cooperate______________________ with the investigation.
5. Kelly opened the window (let) ___to let___________________ in some fresh air.
6. (Live) _____________________living __ in a large city can be stressful.
7. I’ll help you as soon as I finish (mow) ______________________ the lawn.
8. Did you remember (deliver) _____________to deliver____________ the package before going to work?
9. Ivan took a deep breath (relax) ________________to relax_______ himself before taking the stage.
10. The policeman couldn’t tolerate his (run) _running______________________ away.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 07 Sep 2010, 10:16
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In the Note referring to Able shouldn't it be:

"able+infinitive" rather than "able +gerund."
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2010, 21:23
In tutorial on Gerund, it is mentioned that 'admit' is always followed by a gerund...example given is ..
Quote:
The thief has admitted stealing the jewelry from the store.
..

Is this incorrect..
The thief admitted that he stole the jewelry from the store.
Or
The thief had admitted that he had stolen the jewelry from the store.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 19 Sep 2010, 19:34
Thanks dzyubam for the post.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2011, 06:00
drink
to answer
hoping
to cooperate
letting
living
mowing
to deliver
to relax
running
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 02 Aug 2011, 20:25
Expert's post
gmatexam2009 wrote:
In tutorial on Gerund, it is mentioned that 'admit' is always followed by a gerund...example given is ..
Quote:
The thief has admitted stealing the jewelry from the store.
..

Is this incorrect..
The thief admitted that he stole the jewelry from the store.
Or
The thief had admitted that he had stolen the jewelry from the store.



This is correct.
The point above is IMMEDIATELY following the verb ADMIT. Such as admit stealing. In your examples Admit is followed by THAT
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 13 Sep 2011, 01:28
Thhe rule

Whenever a preposition is followed by a verb, it will be a gerund

Does this rule holds at all instances without exceptions ??
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 02 Oct 2011, 09:56
Experts please advice, can we place two infinitives together?

Could you share the example to show two infinitives together?
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 02 Oct 2011, 10:06
Expert's post
sungoal wrote:
Experts please advice, can we place two infinitives together?

Could you share the example to show two infinitives together?


You mean something like, "I want to help him to get a promotion" or "To eat to live was Jack's approach to life"

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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 02 Oct 2011, 10:09
Expert's post
ksp wrote:
Thhe rule

Whenever a preposition is followed by a verb, it will be a gerund

Does this rule holds at all instances without exceptions ??


Can you give an example?
At first sounds like a very general rule that should have exceptions but hard to tell without an example.

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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 02 Oct 2011, 10:12
thanks for the quick response. I meant the second construction.

could you explain what the second infinitive "to live" is modifying?

What is the correct rule to use this type of construction?
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 02 Oct 2011, 10:18
Expert's post
I think it's a fairly uncommon and in this case one of the infinitives modifies the other, and I suspect that the second infinitive actually serves as a noun form of some sorts since the whole thing is a subject.

I honestly don't think you need to worry about this one - I have not encountered this in gmat or business interaction. If you want to pursue ot, would recommend exploring a writer's grammar forum as this definitely goes beyond the gmat.

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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives [#permalink] New post 02 Oct 2011, 10:22
I encountered this construction in a GMATPrep question. Below is the correct answer for that question:

Many environmentalists believe that the widespread planting of trees, along with the conversation of existing forests, would be one of the surest, easiest and least expensive ways to begin to halt or even to reverse the buildup of carbon dioixde in the air

The above option uses two infinitives together.
Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Gerunds and Infinitives   [#permalink] 02 Oct 2011, 10:22
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