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GMAT Grammar Book: Modal Auxiliary Verbs

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GMAT Grammar Book: Modal Auxiliary Verbs [#permalink] New post 07 Sep 2010, 14:18
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Modal Auxiliary Verbs


This post is a part of [GMAT GRAMMAR BOOK]

created by: bb
edited by: dzyubam

Modal auxiliary verbs and verb phrases are used to indicate that something is necessary, advisable, permissible, possible, or probable. The following chart shows the modal verbs and verb phrases in their present/future and past uses.

AUXILIARYUSESPRESENT/FUTUREPAST
will(1) 100% certainty
(2) willingness
(3) polite request
Joe will arrive at 3:00.
I will pay for lunch.
Will you please come too?
would(1) desire
(2) polite request
(3) repeated past action
I would like to come too.
Would you like to come too?
I would have gone, but I was busy.

When I worked there, I would get free meals.
may(1) polite request
(2) formal permission
(3) uncertainty
May I borrow ten dollars?
You may leave class early.
Joe may be at the office.
Joe may have been at the office.
might(1) uncertainty
(2) polite request (uncommon)
Joe might be at the office.
Might I borrow ten dollars?
Joe might have been at the office.
can(1) permissible
(2) polite request
(3) possibility
I can carry that for you.
Can you carry this for me?
I can win this game.
could(1) conditional
(2) polite request
I could carry that for you if you'd like.
Could you carry this for me?
I could have won the game if I’d have tried harder.
shall(same as will, only formal and uncommonly used)Joe shall arrive at 3:00.
I shall pay for lunch.
should(1) advisability
(2) uncertainty/expectation
I should study for the test.
I should do well on the test.
I should have studied for the test.
I should have done well on the test.
ought to(1) advisability
(2) uncertainty/expectation
I ought to study tonight.
I ought to do well on the test.
I ought to have studied tonight, but I didn’t.
I ought to have done well on the test.
had better(1)advisability with threat or bad resultYou had better tell the truth, or you will get into trouble.


NOTE: Most modals are followed by the simple form of the verb (without “to”). Ought is an exception (see above), as well as some modal verb phrases. The modals above should never be followed directly by a verb + ing, verb + s, past tense verb, or an infinitive (except for ought).

Negation of Modals


In order to make a modal sentence negative, the particle not is added after the modal.

I would like to go to Europe. I would not like to go to Europe.
You should play with that toy. You should not play with that toy.

Forming Questions with Modals


The modal begins a sentence when forming questions from sentences with modals.

Would you like to go to Europe?
Should you play with that toy?

Exercise 28: Using Modals


Fill in the correct form of the modal to complete the sentences. NOTE: Some sentences can use more than one modal. See the [highlight]Answers to Exercises[/highlight] section for other alternatives.

1. My cousin might have taken you to the airport if you _______________ have asked him.
2. If I finish this large pot of stew before lunchtime, I ________________ take it to the homeless shelter.
3. Had Jonathon not fallen down the stairs, he ________________ be playing in the game tonight.
4. You _________________ get that cough checked if you don’t want to end up in the hospital.
5. Mike ________________ have won the competition if he had studied harder.
6. If you ________________ guarantee that I will get paid, I will do the job.
7. Sally ________________ be able to go with us if she finishes her errands.
8. _________________ you please tell me where the museum is located?
9. If he grows any bigger, he __________________ fit into any of his clothes.
10. You __________________ do that if you don’t want to get into trouble.

Conditional Sentences


Conditional sentences include the modals will, would, can and could, usually with the word if. There are two types of conditional sentences: the real, which are based on factual and habitual situations, and the unreal, which are based on untrue or hypothetical situations.

The real conditional is used when an action or situation is expressed which normally will occur if the circumstances in the main clause are met. The real conditional is sometimes referred to as the “future possible” because it refers to a possible future outcome.

Situation: I am not planning on doing anything this weekend. Someone asks me if I want to go to the concert with them. I say:

I will go to the concert if it is possible.

The sentence is true because: I will go to the concert unless it is impossible.

We can have a party if my dad leaves.
The sentence is true because: We will have a party unless my dad is here.

The unreal conditional conveys a situation that would take place, or would have taken place, if the circumstances were, or had been, different. It can refer to past, present, or future situations.

Situation: It is impossible for me to go, but I want to go. I say:

I would go to the concert if it were possible.
This sentence is untrue because: I know that I cannot go to the concert.

John could buy that car if he had the money.
This sentence is untrue because: John doesn’t have the money and cannot buy the car.

The if clause can also come at the beginning of the sentence without changing the meaning. However, when the if clause begins the sentence, a comma is used to separate it from the main clause.

I could go to the ball game if I didn’t have to work.

OR

If I didn’t have to work, I could go to the ball game.

The word if is usually not followed directly by the modal.

if + subject + conjugated verb . . . + modal . . .

subject + modal . . . + if . . .+ conjugated verb . . .


NOTE: In the unreal condition, the past tense form of the verb be is always were. It can NEVER be was.

If I were --- If we were
If you were --- If you were
If he were ---
If she were --- If they were
If it were ---


If the verb in the unreal conditional sentence is negative, the meaning is actually positive. If the verb is positive, the meaning is actually negative.

If he were taller, he could play professional basketball.
(He’s not tall.) (He cannot play professional basketball.)

I could record an album, if I were a better singer,
(I cannot record an album.) (I am not a better singer.)

BUT

If the taxi driver hadn’t been speeding, he wouldn’t have been in an accident.
(The taxi driver was speeding.) (He was in an accident.)

They would have received tickets if they hadn’t been late.
(They didn’t receive tickets.) (They were late.)

TO BE CONTINUED...





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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Modal Auxiliary Verbs [#permalink] New post 07 Sep 2010, 15:02

Exercise 28: Using Modals



IMO Answers are :

1. My cousin might have taken you to the airport if you __could___ have asked him.
2. If I finish this large pot of stew before lunchtime, I __will__ take it to the homeless shelter.
3. Had Jonathon not fallen down the stairs, he __would__ be playing in the game tonight.
4. You ___can't___ get that cough checked if you don’t want to end up in the hospital.
5. Mike ___would/could___ have won the competition if he had studied harder.
6. If you __can__ guarantee that I will get paid, I will do the job.
7. Sally __will__ be able to go with us if she finishes her errands.
8. __Can__ you please tell me where the museum is located?
9. If he grows any bigger, he __will not__ fit into any of his clothes.
10. You __can/ought to__ do that if you don’t want to get into trouble.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Modal Auxiliary Verbs [#permalink] New post 07 Sep 2010, 15:08
Anyhow dzyubam, thank you once again. You are doing a remarkable job.

One important point worth mentioning here. "Would" never appears in "If" clause.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Modal Auxiliary Verbs [#permalink] New post 29 Jan 2011, 07:57
Ex 28 Q4 answer is not can't, instead should/ought to
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Modal Auxiliary Verbs [#permalink] New post 24 Mar 2011, 09:40
Exercise 28: Using Modals



IMO Answers are :

1. My cousin might have taken you to the airport if you __could___ have asked him.
2. If I finish this large pot of stew before lunchtime, I __could__ take it to the homeless shelter.
3. Had Jonathon not fallen down the stairs, he _better__ be playing in the game tonight.
4. You ___should/ought to___ get that cough checked if you don’t want to end up in the hospital.
5. Mike ___could___ have won the competition if he had studied harder.
6. If you __could__ guarantee that I will get paid, I will do the job.
7. Sally __will__ be able to go with us if she finishes her errands.
8. __Could__ you please tell me where the museum is located?
9. If he grows any bigger, he __may/might/can/could__ fit into any of his clothes.
10. You __should/ought to__ do that if you don’t want to get into trouble.

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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Modal Auxiliary Verbs [#permalink] New post 12 Jul 2011, 19:18
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Real Conditions (Possibly True)


Following are the formulas for conditional sentences which have the possibility of being true.
Remember: The formula can be reversed, placing the if clause in the middle of the sentence. Also, when placing the if clause first, a comma is used after it.

Future
if + subject + simple present tense +
    will
    can
    may
    must
+ verb in simple form

If I raise enough money, I will start my own business.
Our team will win if they play well.

Habitual
if + subject + simple present tense. . . + simple present tense. . .

NOTE: A modal is not used in the habitual conditional form of a sentence.

If the traffic is heavy, I am late for work.
Margaret sings in the church choir if she has free time.

Command
if + subject + simple present tense. . . + command (simple verb form)

If you go to the store after work, please buy bread.
Contact me if we win the project bid.

Unreal Conditions (Not True)


Following are the formulas for conditional sentences which are not true.
Remember: Unreal conditionals use the opposite verb tense then what is being relayed.

Present or Future
if + subject + simple past tense +
    would
    could
    might
+ verb in simple form

If John knew math better, he could help you with your homework.
(John doesn’t know math better) (He can’t help you with your homework.)

I would drive you to town if I had a car.
(I won’t drive you to town.) (I don’t have a car.)

If you didn’t have to work, we could go to the party.
(You have to work.) (We cannot go to the party.)

Past
if + subject + past perfect +
    would
    could
    might
+ have + verb in past participle


If she had taken that bus, she would have been in the accident.
(She didn’t take that bus.) (She wasn’t in the accident.)

They might have arrived on time if they hadn’t taken that bus.
(They didn’t arrive on time.) (They took that bus.)

If Rob hadn’t gone to the party, he wouldn’t have lost his job.
(Rob went to the party.) (He lost his job.)

The unreal condition can also be expressed without using if. In this situation, the auxiliary verb had is placed before the subject instead of after it. This clause normally comes first in the sentence.

Past
Had + subject + past perfect +
    would
    could
    might
+ have + verb in past participle

Had he heard the news sooner, he would have prepared a better speech.
Had they flown to Italy last week, they would have encountered the horrible storm.

Exercise 31: Using Real and Unreal Conditionals


Provide the correct form of the verb in parentheses for each of the following sentences.
1. Had Bob known it was his cousins birthday he would ___________________ (take) the day off.
2. You could __________________ (move) in today if they offer the place to you.
3. Sue might __________________ (accept) your offer if she thought it was fair.
4. The repairmen would fix your problem if you would ___________________ (contact) them.
5. If you would __________________ (go) when I told you, you wouldn’t have missed him.
6. If I __________________ (talk) slower, do you think you could understand me?
7. We wouldn’t be lost if we would ___________________ (take) better instructions.
8. If I can go to the concert, I ____________________ (call) you later.
9. Mary can go swimming if she ____________________ (have) extra time.
10. I would help you with the equation if I _____________________ (know) more about physics.


Whether / If


Basically, the difference between the words whether and if is that whether indicates a choice between two possibilities, whereas if is based on a condition of something happening or not.
Sometimes, whether or if can be used interchangeably. In the following sentences, both indicate that Alex may or may not call Shelly tonight.

Shelly didn’t know whether Alex would call her tonight.
Shelly didn’t know if Alex would call her tonight.

However, if the sentence gives two distinct possibilities then whether should be used.
Shelly didn’t know whether Alex would call her tonight or tomorrow night.
Using the word if in the above sentence would change the meaning.
Example:
Shelly didn’t know if Alex would call her tonight or tomorrow night.

Now this sentence indicates that Alex may call Shelly tonight, tomorrow night, or not at all. Therefore, always use whether when two clear choices are given and use if for conditional sentences.


20. CAUSE CONNECTORS


Cause connectors are words which give a reason of why something happened.

Because / Because Of


The cause connector because, when by itself, must always be followed by a clause. Remember that a clause which stands alone is a complete sentence, containing a subject and a verb. The cause connector because of if followed by a noun or noun phrase and does NOT have a verb.
. . . because + subject + verb + subject

. . . because of + noun (phrase)

NOTE: The phrase because of can also be expressed with the phrase due to.
Ralph missed class because the bus broke down.
subject verb

Ralph missed class because of the bus.
noun phrase

Christy was crying because there were spiders.
verb subject

Christy was crying because of the spiders.
noun phrase
The cause clause can also begin the sentence. When this occurs, a comma is used to separate it from the main clause.
Because of the spiders, Christy was crying.


Exercise 32: Using Because /Because Of


Fill in the blank with the appropriate form of because or because of.
1. Jack couldn’t go to the game _____________________ he had homework.
2. The writer wasn’t able to concentrate _______________________ all the noise.
3. Nancy had to go to the doctor’s ______________________ her throat hurt.
4. I love to play golf ______________________ it relaxes me.
5. John couldn’t play golf with me _______________________ his bad back.
6. They went to that restaurant ____________________ the recommendation.
7. ____________________ he was arrogant, Sally didn’t like the new boy.
8. We ended up going another way ____________________ the road was blocked.
9. The storm was extra strong ____________________ the weather conditions.
10. I am learning English quickly ____________________ I am studying a lot.


Purpose and Result (So That)


Clauses which show purpose are followed by the conjunction so that. A result clause containing a subject and a verb then follows the conjunction. The result clause must occur after the main clause in relation to time.
subject + verb + so that + subject + verb

NOTE: The word that is often left out of these types of sentences in spoken English. However, it should always be included in formal written English.
The actors are practicing very hard so that they will be ready for the opening of the play.
We left early so that we wouldn’t be late to the conference.
George studied all night so that he would pass the exam.
She wrote detailed instructions so that we could complete the project correctly.
I exercise daily so that I feel good throughout the day.

Cause and Effect (So, Such)



Cause and effect relationships are constructed using the following formula.
subject + verb + so + adjective adverb + that + subject + verb


He was so hungry that he ate the entire pizza.
The hill was so steep that Mario couldn’t climb it.
John needed money so badly that he sold his baseball card collection.
The children are playing so intently that they don’t notice it’s raining.
That fire is so hot that it could easily burn you if you get too close.
Intensive modifiers are commonly added to provide extra emphasis. Study the following rules for using intensive modifiers with plural count and non-count nouns.
subject + verb + so +
    many
    few
+ plural count noun + that + subject + verb


Eric had so many puppies that he gave some away to friends.
My aunt’s health food store had so few customers that she had to close it.
subject + verb + so +
    much
    little
+ non-count noun + that + subject + verb


She put so much sugar in her coffee that she couldn’t drink it.
Jason spent [u]so[/u] little time on the project that it wasn’t ready for the meeting.
Other forms which are commonly used are such a and such that.
subject + verb + such + a + adjective + singular count noun + that. . .


Ricky had such a bad attitude that he was expelled from school.
Charlotte was such an intelligent student that she was offered a valuable scholarship.
subject + verb such + adjective + plural count noun + that + subject + verb


Tommy has such outstanding skills that he could play professional baseball.
plural count noun

The referees made such bad calls that the fans were very angry.
plural count noun


She had such tarnished silver that she was embarrassed to use it for the reunion.
non-count noun

The burning building had such thick smoke that the firemen had difficulty seeing.
non-count noun

Exercise 33: Using So / Such


Fill in the blank with the appropriate form of so or such, using the above formulas.
1. Bill was _____________ happy about the promotion that he bought everyone lunch.
2. We had _____________ expectations for going that we cancelled all appointments.
3. Larry was _____________ a good friend that he loaned me his car.
4. The artwork was _____________ amazing that it won every prize.
5. The earthquake happened at ______________ an hour that we weren’t expecting it.
6. There were _______________ many ants on the cake that we had to throw it away.
7. Sally prepared ______________ thoroughly that she easily won the competition.
8. The Henderson’s were _______________ happy people that we visited them often.
9. The comedian was ________________ entertaining that we lost track of time.
10. Ronny was ________________ disappointed that he missed the party.
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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Modal Auxiliary Verbs [#permalink] New post 29 Aug 2011, 10:59
What is the link for [highlight]Answer to other alternatives[[/highlight]
I couldnt't find it.
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CR notes
http://gmatclub.com/forum/massive-collection-of-verbal-questions-sc-rc-and-cr-106195.html#p832142
http://gmatclub.com/forum/1001-ds-questions-file-106193.html#p832133
http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-prep-critical-reasoning-collection-106783.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html?hilit=chineseburned

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Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Modal Auxiliary Verbs [#permalink] New post 15 Jan 2012, 04:40
im also not ableto find..
Re: GMAT Grammar Book: Modal Auxiliary Verbs   [#permalink] 15 Jan 2012, 04:40
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