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GMATCLUB VERBAL ATTACK

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Manager
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Re: WEEK 1: CRITICAL REASONING STRENGTHEN/WEAKEN Questions [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2012, 06:55
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souvik101990 wrote:
[textarea]

WEEK 1: Strengthen/Weaken/Evaluate the Argument

STRATEGY : Strengthen Question

In the Strengthen Set I got 4 Wrongs - #1,3,7 and 8 out of 9, I had seen 1 question earlier so not counting it.

Took 21 Minutes to did these 9 questions.

In # 1 and # 7 I was totally bowled over, could not get understand the argument properly.

I feel #3 was a sitter, I could not have missed that.

Souvik, any suggestions on how to improve on Strengthen questions.
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Re: WEEK 1: CRITICAL REASONING STRENGTHEN/WEAKEN Questions [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2012, 13:35
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methevoid wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
[textarea]

WEEK 1: Strengthen/Weaken/Evaluate the Argument

STRATEGY : Strengthen Question

In the Strengthen Set I got 4 Wrongs - #1,3,7 and 8 out of 9, I had seen 1 question earlier so not counting it.

Took 21 Minutes to did these 9 questions.

In # 1 and # 7 I was totally bowled over, could not get understand the argument properly.

I feel #3 was a sitter, I could not have missed that.

Souvik, any suggestions on how to improve on Strengthen questions.

2 Basic approaches for a CR question

Inference/Bold Face question

In these type of question you should trust your core logic skills. Premises should be your best friend, and you should look out for excruciating details to deconstruct the argument. The quantitative part of your brain needs to be on high alert in this type of questions.

For example, what do you really look for an answer to an inference question?

Statements that are "Must be true" types, OR
Statements that can be logically proven to be true.

In these questions you need to focus on the flow of the argument, define roles for the premises and compare the answer choice. For these type of questions, paraphrasing is NOT a good idea.

Strengthen/weaken type of questions

These are just the opposite. In these types of questions, you need to look at the bigger picture. You can let your logic rest somewhere else, and let your common sense on the driver's seat. Paraphrasing is a highly advised strategy here.
Well look at it this way: we all did strengthening/weakening type of questions as a kid unknowingly.
See whether you are familiar with this situation.

You break the window glass of your neighbor's house while playing ball. He comes to your place and gives your dad a piece of his mind. Then you tell them that it wasn't you, and probably the other kids of the next block broke the glass.

See you weaken your neighbor's conclusion without even touching powerscore or manhattan.
That is why paraphrasing becomes easier, because you are already familiar with it.

My advice is to paraphrase all strenghten weaken questions without looking at the answer choice. Even if the option did not align with the OA, don't panic. It will, at least make you think in the right direction and let your brain know how to function on those questions when you take the gmat.

Hope this helps.

Souvik
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27 Sep 2012, 12:48
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"Assumption" Strategies

Which of the following is an assumption must for the argument to hold true?

Answer is a presupposition- a statement that is a must if the argument is true. Without that assumption, argument falls apart- it
is an unstated premise. You ABSOLUTELY NEED an assumption. If you don’t have an assumption, then the argument dies.

• Stimulus will always be an argument- since you can only strengthen a conclusion, not a fact set. Identify, isolate and assess
the premises and conclusion
• Focus on conclusion
• Information in stimulus is suspect. Reasoning errors are present which can be corrected by answer choice.
• Strong prephrases possible
• Answer choices can bring new information which is not present in stimulus.
Assumptions are NECESSARYfor the argument – author relies upon it, and is fully committed to it.
Assumptions are NEVERstated in the argument – if it is directly mentioned, it is not an assumption.
Assumption is a minimalist answer- if it has any information author is not committed to or sure of it will not be correct.
How Assumption Questions are different from Must be true questions? – Assumption is something that must be true BEFORE
the argument.

1. No tie to the conclusion- uses words from conclusion and is broadly related, but is not an assumption necessary for the
argument. A sub set is ‘breaks up a category’- assumption talks of boys and girls vs. teachers, and answer choice talks of
boys vs. girls
Opposite answer- were this to be assumed, argument will be weakened! It is important for this not to be true for conclusion
to be correct!
Switching terms- shell game

Follows on from the conclusion, instead of conclusion following on from it.
Too broad – e.g. instead of cyclists, comment about athletes. This doesn’t HAVE to be true! An assumption has to be 100 %
true
Type of Assumptions: Supporter/Defender

3. Supporter: Traditional linking role- links two part of premises, or premise to conclusion. Conclusion in such an argument
will have some new element which is not present in premises. In an assumption question, always be on lookout for a gap
in the argument premise and conclusion- a new element, and then the answer choice that brings that new element in
picture would be a straight win.

4. Defender: protect the argument by eliminating ideas that could weaken the argument. In order to believe that his
argument is correct and fool-proof, the author is assuming that all possible objections have been considered and rejected.
This can be an infinite range of assumptions.
If confused between some answer choices, use ASSUMPTION NEGATION TECHNIQUE

5. Converts an assumption question to a weaken question- negate both the assumption answer choices, the one whose negation causes
the entire argument to fall is the correct answer choice. This will happen because of necessary, indispensable nature of assumption.

Negation:

Is logical negation, not polar opposite. ‘I went to beach every day’ negated is ‘I didn’t go to beach every day’, not ‘I didn’t go to
beach any day’ (polar opposite)

Logical opposite of sweet is not sweet (not sour). Logical opposite divides the subject under consideration into two sets which
include all possible states.

Logical opposite of all – not all (not none); logical opposite of none is some. If all is 100, not all is 0-99. None is 0, and some is 1-100

Logical opposite of none- at least one.

You can use not necessarily for negating in most cases.

Some patterns observed in GMAT:

• At least one or at least some: When an assumption answer choice starts with these, it is normally correct. Negate and test –
none.
Constructions which claim to be most important/primary consideration/ main factor are normally wrong.
Look out for constructions with not/negative etc. they might be correct.

Assumptions and Causality

• Author assumes no other cause exists
• Author assumes cause always leads to effect
• Author assumes that when cause doesn’t occur effect doesn’t occur
• Eliminates the possibility that stated relationship is reverse
• Eliminates possible problems with data

In a cause- effect relationship argument, choose an assumption which supports this causal relationship in one of the above
5 ways. Answer choices discussing matters before or after the causal relationships are not correct.

In a fill in the bank question stem beginning with a premise indicator like ‘because_______ or as a result of _____’ you have to
provide an assumption. Beginning with conclusion indicator- ‘therefore ______’ you have to provide a must be true/main point

GMATPREP EXAMPLES

Q. If a person chooses to walk rather than drive, there is one less vehicle emitting pollution into the air than there would be
otherwise. Therefore if people would walk whenever it is feasible for them to do so, the pollution will be greatly reduced. Which
of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A) Cutting down on pollution can be achieved in a variety of ways.
B) Taking public transportation rather than driving is not always feasible
C) Walking is the only feasible alternative to driving that results in reduction in pollution
D) There are people who never drive but who often walk
E) People sometimes drive when it is feasible to walk instead
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Remember that an assumption is a statement that you absolutely need to be true.
C says there is no other way to reduce pollution. Argument doesn’t assume that. It is not a necessary statement, the
passage just says that walking will reduce pollution, not that only walking will reduce pollution.
E says that people sometimes currently drive when it is feasible to walk. only if this is true can this be stopped, and thus
pollution will be reduced.
Notice this is a pretty bland statement – you would think you already knew this! But actually you also assumed it
unconsciously. Thus assumptions for the most part would be something even you would have taken for granted.
Assumption statements will be weaker/ more moderate statements. in Strengthen/ Weaken more extreme statements are
good.
Using assumption negation technique: c reversed says that there are other ways, that doesn’t affect the argument. E
negated says that there is nobody who drives when it is feasible to walk i.e. everybody who can walk is already walking, then
the argument fails – the plan will have no effect.

Q. A famous singer recently won a lawsuit against an advertising firm for using another singer in a commercial to evoke the
famous singer’s well-known rendition of a certain song. As a result of the lawsuit, advertising firms will stop using imitators
in commercials. Therefore, advertising costs will rise, since famous singers’ services cost more than those of their imitators.
The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Most people are unable to distinguish a famous singer’s rendition of a song from a good imitator’s rendition of the same
song.
(B) Commercials using famous singers are usually more effective than commercials using imitators of famous singers.
(C) The original versions of some well-known songs are unavailable for use in commercials.
(D) Advertising firms will continue to use imitators to mimic the physical mannerisms of famous singers.
(E) The advertising industry will use well-known renditions of songs in commercials.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Reversing B says that renditions with commercial singers are no more effective. This has no effect on the costs of the
advertising which the argument is concerned with. This is out of scope. An assumption has to be within the scope of the
argument.
C reversed says that all original versions are available – but these are done by famous singers. So they will have to be paid.
E reversed says that ads will not use renditions of famous songs. If songs themselves are not used, they cannot lead to

"ASSUMPTION" SET

1. To decrease the number of crimes in city Y, the city’s Police Commissioner proposed taking some police officers
from low-crime districts of the city and moving them to high-crime districts of the city. His proposal is based on city
Y crime data that show that the number of crimes in any district of the city decreases when additional police
officers are moved into that district. The Police Commissioner’s proposal depends on which of the following
assumptions?

• City X experienced a drastic reduction in crime after implementing a proposal similar to that proposed by the Police
Commissioner of city Y.
• The severity of crimes committed in any district of the city decreases when additional police officers are moved
into that district.
• The number of crimes committed in all high-crime districts of city Y is more than triple the number of crimes
committed in all low-crime districts of city Y.
• There are more low-crime districts than high-crime districts in city Y.
• Districts of the city from which police officers are removed do not experience significant crime increases shortly
after the removal of those officers.

2. Although there has been great scientific debate for decades over global warming, most scientists now agree that
human activity is causing the Earth’s temperature to rise. Though predictions vary, many global warming experts
believe that average global temperatures will rise between three and eight degrees Fahrenheit during the next
century. Such an increase would cause an alarming rise in sea levels, displacing millions of people by destroying
major population centers along the world’s coastlines. Which of the following is an assumption in support of the
argument’s conclusion?

• New technological developments in the next century will not divert rising seas from the world’s coastal cities.
• Individuals will not become more aware of the steps they can take to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
• Rising sea levels similarly affect all coastal population centers.
• Some global warming experts predict a greater than eight degree Fahrenheit increase in global temperatures
during the next century.
• Human activity is the sole cause of increasing global temperatures.

3. “The new HitItFar driver is the only golf club that uses space-age Titanium-Kryptonium alloy to strengthen its head.
This driver is SO good, the last 12 winners of the major tour championships have all recently switched to it! Isn’t
HitItFar tomorrow!” All of the following claims are either implied or made explicitly in the above advertisement
EXCEPT:

• Switching to the HitItFar driver will improve your play.
• The HitItFar driver helped the last 12 major championship winners achieve their victory.
• Major championship winners are experts and know what constitutes a great golf club.
• Your existing driver is inferior to the HitItFar driver.
• Only HitItFar golf clubs have Titanium-Kryptonium alloy in the head of their drivers.

4. Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived
the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria
that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the
direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the
Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times
higher than that found in other locations. The researchers’ hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?

• Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.
• The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.
• Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.
• No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.
• The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.

5. The popular notion that a tree’s age can be determined by counting the number of internal rings in its trunk is
generally true. However, to help regulate the internal temperature of the tree, the outermost layers of wood of the
Brazilian ash often peel away when the temperature exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit, leaving the tree with fewer
rings than it would otherwise have. So only if the temperature in the Brazilian ash’s environment never exceeds 95
degrees Fahrenheit will its rings be a reliable measure of the tree’s age. Which of the following is an assumption
on which the argument above depends?
• The growth of new rings in a tree is not a function of levels of precipitation.
• Only the Brazilian ash loses rings because of excessive heat.
• Only one day of temperatures above 95 degrees Fahrenheit is needed to cause the Brazilian ash to lose a ring.
• The internal rings of all trees are of uniform thickness.
• The number of rings that will be lost when the temperature exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit is not predictable.

6. The Department of Homeland Security has proposed new federal requirements for driver’s licenses that would
allow them to be used as part of a national identification system. Using licenses for purposes not directly related
to operating a motor vehicle is un-American because it would require U.S. citizens to carry the equivalent of
“papers.” Such a requirement would allow the government to restrict their movements and activities in the manner
of totalitarian regimes. In time, this could make other limits on freedom acceptable. The author assumes which of
the following?

• The next presidential election will be dishonest, as has happened in eastern European countries.
• The government will soon start curtailing the activities of those it considers “dissidents.”
• Blanket restrictions on law-abiding individuals are contrary to the traditions of American culture and law.
• The majority of Americans are not willing to give up their right to travel and move about without identification.
• Americans should resist all government regulation of their lives.12

7. Since the new publisher took control, a news magazine’s covers have featured only models and movie stars.
claimed that the changes made the magazine relevant again. However, many newspaper editorials disagreed and
suggested that the new publisher is more interested in boosting sales than in reporting important news events.
Which of the following is an assumption necessary for the argument made by the gossip columnist’s opponents?

• The charitable activities of models and movie stars often focus public attention on pressing problems.
• Final authority for choosing the cover subject of the magazine lies with the publisher.
• A magazine can boost sales while highlighting the coverage of important world leaders.
• Some of the movie stars featured are now running for political office.
• Magazine issues with models or movie stars on the covers are purchased at a rate more than three times greater
than is the case with issues featuring politicians on the covers.

8. In response to the increasing cost of producing energy through traditional means, such as combustion, many utility
companies have begun investing in renewable energy sources, chiefly wind and solar power, hoping someday to
rely on them completely and thus lower energy costs. The utility companies claim that although these sources
require significant initial capital investment, they will provide stable energy supplies at low cost. As a result, these
sources will be less risky for the utilities than nonrenewable sources, such as gas, oil, and coal, whose prices can
fluctuate dramatically according to availability. The claim of the utility companies presupposes which of the following?

• The public will embrace the development of wind and solar power.
• No new deposits of gas, oil, and coal will be discovered in the near future.
• Weather patterns are consistent and predictable.
• The necessary technology for conversion to wind and solar power is not more expensive than the technology
needed to create energy through combustion.
• Obtaining energy from nonrenewable sources, such as gas, oil and coal, cannot be made less risky.

9. Surveys consistently show that the best-selling ice cream flavor is vanilla, although those who prefer chocolate
rarely order vanilla. Vanilla-flavored candy, then, probably sells better than chocolate-flavored candy. Which of
the following is an assumption upon which the author of the argument relies?

• Because someone prefers vanilla ice cream does not mean he prefers vanilla-flavored candy.
• Children who prefer vanilla ice cream also tend to like chocolate candy.
• Those who prefer neither vanilla nor chocolate ice cream also prefer other flavors of candy.
• Someone who prefers vanilla ice cream may still order chocolate on occasion.
• Preferences for certain ice cream flavors are similar to preferences for candy flavors.

10. The media claim that the economy is entering a phase of growth and prosperity. They point to lower unemployment
rates and increased productivity. This analysis is false, though. The number of people filing for bankruptcy has
increased every month for the last six months, and bankruptcy lawyers report that they are busier than they have
been in years. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

• Unemployment rates are not useful indicators of growth and prosperity.
• Economic growth cannot be measured in terms of productivity.
• Legislation has not been recently passed to make legal bankruptcy easier to obtain.
• There has not been an increase in the number of bankruptcy lawyers..
• The media often misrepresent the current state of economic affairs.

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28 Sep 2012, 03:41
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Later I 'll attack the problem after work

I would like to say: should not be possible to do for instance a main post where are linked the various sub posts: assumption , weaken the argument and so on and so forth ???

Something similra to the thread of the OG 13 th verbal ??

It is an idea
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28 Sep 2012, 05:04
It is really nice to find the thread.

MBA Section Director
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 3259
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28 Sep 2012, 05:08
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Expert's post
carcass wrote:
Later I 'll attack the problem after work

I would like to say: should not be possible to do for instance a main post where are linked the various sub posts: assumption , weaken the argument and so on and so forth ???

Something similra to the thread of the OG 13 th verbal ??

It is an idea

Hey it is a nice idea. And that was the idea we started with
Please check the first post and tell me if this is what you are talking about. And also check my signature.
gmatclub-verbal-attack-139074.html#p1122343
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28 Sep 2012, 06:44
Expert's post
one word: GREAT. Simply perfect
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28 Sep 2012, 07:19
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Hey thanks!
I hope for more participation though!!!
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28 Sep 2012, 22:32
MBA Section Director
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 3259
Location: India
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Energy and Utilities)
Followers: 1262

Kudos [?]: 9113 [0], given: 1842

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28 Sep 2012, 23:20
Expert's post
_________________
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Status: Fighting again to Kill the GMAT devil
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30 Sep 2012, 10:19
This Verbal Attack seems to be my Chance at getting V 40
Many XXXXX Kudos to Souvik for helping all us out!!!
_________________

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Manager
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30 Sep 2012, 11:48
2
KUDOS
"ASSUMPTION" SET - My modest Attempt

souvik101990 wrote:
1. To decrease the number of crimes in city Y, the city’s Police Commissioner proposed taking some police officers
from low-crime districts of the city and moving them to high-crime districts of the city. His proposal is based on city
Y crime data that show that the number of crimes in any district of the city decreases when additional police
officers are moved into that district. The Police Commissioner’s proposal depends on which of the following
assumptions?

• City X experienced a drastic reduction in crime after implementing a proposal similar to that proposed by the Police
Commissioner of city Y.
• The severity of crimes committed in any district of the city decreases when additional police officers are moved
into that district. Shell Game Answer - talks about Severity of Crimes, no where the Severity if crimes is utilized in the argument made by Police commisioner of City Y
• The number of crimes committed in all high-crime districts of city Y is more than triple the number of crimes
committed in all low-crime districts of city Y. Totally unrelated in the question context
• There are more low-crime districts than high-crime districts in city Y. Totally unrelated in the question context
• Districts of the city from which police officers are removed do not experience significant crime increases shortly
after the removal of those officers.
Perfect assumption - moving a polie force makes sense only when removing them does not increase the crime in that area.

2. Although there has been great scientific debate for decades over global warming, most scientists now agree that
human activity is causing the Earth’s temperature to rise. Though predictions vary, many global warming experts
believe that average global temperatures will rise between three and eight degrees Fahrenheit during the next
century. Such an increase would cause an alarming rise in sea levels, displacing millions of people by destroying
major population centers along the world’s coastlines. Which of the following is an assumption in support of the
argument’s conclusion?

Was Confused between A and C ; Finally chose A, cause it affects the cause of the reason - (Rising seas getting diverted from cities), while in C it talks about what outcome of Rising Sea would affect what population?
• New technological developments in the next century will not divert rising seas from the world’s coastal cities.
• Individuals will not become more aware of the steps they can take to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Is a beautiful shell game answer - bringing green house gases in the answer - diverting the reader's focus from the question asked to his / hers global understanding of "global warming" ; green house gases is no where mentioned in the stimulus.
• Rising sea levels similarly affect all coastal population centers.
• Some global warming experts predict a greater than eight degree Fahrenheit increase in global temperatures
during the next century.
• Human activity is the sole cause of increasing global temperatures.

3. “The new HitItFar driver is the only golf club that uses space-age Titanium-Kryptonium alloy to strengthen its head.
This driver is SO good, the last 12 winners of the major tour championships have all recently switched to it! Isn’t
HitItFar tomorrow!” All of the following claims are either implied or made explicitly in the above advertisement
EXCEPT:

• Switching to the HitItFar driver will improve your play.
• The HitItFar driver helped the last 12 major championship winners achieve their victory.No Doubt in this AC
• Major championship winners are experts and know what constitutes a great golf club.
• Your existing driver is inferior to the HitItFar driver.
• Only HitItFar golf clubs have Titanium-Kryptonium alloy in the head of their drivers.

4. Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived
the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria
that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the
direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the
Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times
higher than that found in other locations. The researchers’ hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?

• Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.
• The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.
• Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.
• No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria. Notice the strong wording - "Noone"
• The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.Cause and Effect Reasoning - This AC proves that Effect is not the cause - so that the cause stands true.

5. The popular notion that a tree’s age can be determined by counting the number of internal rings in its trunk is
generally true. However, to help regulate the internal temperature of the tree, the outermost layers of wood of the
Brazilian ash often peel away when the temperature exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit, leaving the tree with fewer
rings than it would otherwise have. So only if the temperature in the Brazilian ash’s environment never exceeds 95
degrees Fahrenheit will its rings be a reliable measure of the tree’s age. Which of the following is an assumption
on which the argument above depends?
• The growth of new rings in a tree is not a function of levels of precipitation.
• Only the Brazilian ash loses rings because of excessive heat.
• Only one day of temperatures above 95 degrees Fahrenheit is needed to cause the Brazilian ash to lose a ring. This would mean that even if temperature reaches 95 F, tree would start loosing the ring and loose it in a day.
• The internal rings of all trees are of uniform thickness.
• The number of rings that will be lost when the temperature exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit is not predictable.

6. The Department of Homeland Security has proposed new federal requirements for driver’s licenses that would
allow them to be used as part of a national identification system. Using licenses for purposes not directly related
to operating a motor vehicle is un-American because it would require U.S. citizens to carry the equivalent of
“papers.” Such a requirement would allow the government to restrict their movements and activities in the manner
of totalitarian regimes. In time, this could make other limits on freedom acceptable. The author assumes which of
the following?
• The next presidential election will be dishonest, as has happened in eastern European countries.
• The government will soon start curtailing the activities of those it considers “dissidents.”
• Blanket restrictions on law-abiding individuals are contrary to the traditions of American culture and law.
• The majority of Americans are not willing to give up their right to travel and move about without identification.
• Americans should resist all government regulation of their lives.12

7. Since the new publisher took control, a news magazine’s covers have featured only models and movie stars.
claimed that the changes made the magazine relevant again. However, many newspaper editorials disagreed and
suggested that the new publisher is more interested in boosting sales than in reporting important news events.
Which of the following is an assumption necessary for the argument made by the gossip columnist’s opponents?

• The charitable activities of models and movie stars often focus public attention on pressing problems.
• Final authority for choosing the cover subject of the magazine lies with the publisher. A Classic Assumption problem, this choice proves what if the publisher, is the one who chooses what got to stay on the cover page and no one else does that.
• A magazine can boost sales while highlighting the coverage of important world leaders.
• Some of the movie stars featured are now running for political office.
• Magazine issues with models or movie stars on the covers are purchased at a rate more than three times greater
than is the case with issues featuring politicians on the covers.

8. In response to the increasing cost of producing energy through traditional means, such as combustion, many utility
companies have begun investing in renewable energy sources, chiefly wind and solar power, hoping someday to
rely on them completely and thus lower energy costs. The utility companies claim that although these sources
require significant initial capital investment, they will provide stable energy supplies at low cost. As a result, these
sources will be less risky for the utilities than nonrenewable sources, such as gas, oil, and coal, whose prices can
fluctuate dramatically according to availability. The claim of the utility companies presupposes which of the following?

• The public will embrace the development of wind and solar power.
• No new deposits of gas, oil, and coal will be discovered in the near future. My choice - if new deposits found then traditional costs of making energy would decrease again
• Weather patterns are consistent and predictable.
• The necessary technology for conversion to wind and solar power is not more expensive than the technology
needed to create energy through combustion.
• Obtaining energy from nonrenewable sources, such as gas, oil and coal, cannot be made less risky.

9. Surveys consistently show that the best-selling ice cream flavor is vanilla, although those who prefer chocolate
rarely order vanilla. Vanilla-flavored candy, then, probably sells better than chocolate-flavored candy. Which of
the following is an assumption upon which the author of the argument relies?

• Because someone prefers vanilla ice cream does not mean he prefers vanilla-flavored candy.
• Children who prefer vanilla ice cream also tend to like chocolate candy.
• Those who prefer neither vanilla nor chocolate ice cream also prefer other flavors of candy.
• Someone who prefers vanilla ice cream may still order chocolate on occasion.
• Preferences for certain ice cream flavors are similar to preferences for candy flavors. Easy Pick - Paralleling choices in ice cremas = choices in candies

10. The media claim that the economy is entering a phase of growth and prosperity. They point to lower unemployment
rates and increased productivity. This analysis is false, though. The number of people filing for bankruptcy has
increased every month for the last six months, and bankruptcy lawyers report that they are busier than they have
been in years. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

• Unemployment rates are not useful indicators of growth and prosperity.
• Economic growth cannot be measured in terms of productivity.
• Legislation has not been recently passed to make legal bankruptcy easier to obtain. Super cool answer, if only legislation was recently made easier to file bankruptcy - then to connect filing of bankruptcy to lower growth seems illogical
• There has not been an increase in the number of bankruptcy lawyers..
• The media often misrepresent the current state of economic affairs.

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30 Sep 2012, 12:02
Expert's post
methevoid wrote:
This Verbal Attack seems to be my Chance at getting V 40
Many XXXXX Kudos to Souvik for helping all us out!!!

Posting the OEs tomorrow!!
I am a bit tired today!
BTW how about extending verbal attack on gmatclub chat?
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30 Sep 2012, 12:11
Expert's post
For GmatPrep for me are E and E

The other : E C C A C D B C E E

After OA we can discuss this really good drill. Albeit, I found the source and is worth

Thanks
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30 Sep 2012, 12:22
Expert's post
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Yes we are definitely missing out on the discussions!
Source is http://www.gmat-cr.blogspot.com (strangely it says that the websiote has been removed)
this website put together very cool questions collected from MGMAT tests and LSAT sets
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30 Sep 2012, 12:33
Expert's post
ya me too. I see the same thing and untill yesterday was up

This is anothewr good source, if someone wants to see here it is

http://www.gmatclubindia.com/index.php?board=5.0
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30 Sep 2012, 14:00
carcass wrote:
Capricorn369 wrote:
carcass wrote:
Analyst: The pace of technological development brings a constant stream of new devices to the market, and many
of them enjoy commercial success. But announcing new technology too soon after the introduction of a successful
device can backfire. Once consumers hear about the new device, they may stop buying the one currently on sale.
So, if a company wishes to announce the upcoming sale of a new device, it should wait until purchases of the old
device have begun to decline.

Which of the following, if true, would best support the analyst’s main assertion?

• New technology often becomes less expensive after an initial surge in sales. irrilevant

• Media outlets, such as television programs and magazines, often report on the planned introduction of new correct
devices while the sales of old devices are still strong.

• Many consumers are unable to determine whether new technology is superior to current technology. we care about the sales not technology

• Surveys have shown that some consumers make only one or two technology purchases per year, whereas others
make more frequent purchases. irrilevant

• Consumers tend to be loyal to technology companies whose products they enjoy using. loyal is not the point

is not good to announce new devices and at the same time sell the old ones, because the latter fall and all customers go to the new devices BUT is media magazine and so on report that new devices are annonce and at the same time the old devices are still sold.

While announcing new technology -> wait until purchases of the old device have begun to decline -> announce the upcoming sale of a new device.

How the aforesaid sequence is aligned with answer option 2, I don't see any correlation.

Sorry

If the media announce a new plan this come from the company (apple says: we have the new iPhone) then if this is possible, and is possible to have storg sales of old devices the argument is weaken. The plan is not feasible, B say that is feasible because we have reports about this, due to something that the companies say

Premise 1: company announces new product
Premise 2 : people stop buying old.
Concluson: so the company should wait for the sale of old product to drop."NOTE:The drop is assumed to be natural"

Take choice B:It is the only choice that has common elements of premises and conclusion.
It states that "the(media) publish the news of new product when the current sale of old product is still strong"
So the result will be that "prospective customer of the old product will wait for new product to launch and the sale will drop"
NOTE :"the drop is caused by the news"------thus strenghten the augument that they should wait for sale to drop before announcing

Hope this helps.
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03 Oct 2012, 19:51
hey souvik

Awesome collection, it really proved that I need to work a lot in assumption-CR.
When are you publishing OAs?
Need to discuss more of Q10. Thanks
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03 Oct 2012, 20:32
3
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"ASSUMPTION" Set OE

1. The Police Commissioner's proposal hopes to decrease the number of crimes in
city Y by shifting police officers from low-crime to high-crime districts. His
proposal is based on data that demonstrate that crime decreases when
additional police officers are moved into a district. However, the data do not
mention anything about the effect on the districts from which the police officers
were removed. The commissioner's plan is based on the assumption that the
movement of police officers will not have any adverse effects on the low-crime
districts.
(A) While it is encouraging that a similar plan worked successfully in City X, this
fact is certainly not essential for the success of the plan in City Y. The cities may
be so different as to make the comparison meaningless.
(B) The police commissioner's proposal is focused solely on decreasing the
number of crimes in city Y. The severity of the crimes has no bearing on whether
the commissioner's proposal will succeed or not.
(C) The actual numerical distinction between high and low-crime areas of the city
is immaterial to the commissioner's proposal. For instance, if the number of
crimes committed in all high crime districts was only double (instead of more than
triple) the number of crimes committed in low crime districts, the proposal could
still be valid.
(D) It would be practically beneficial to the commissioner's plan if there were
more low crime than high crime districts in city Y. This would enable the
movement of police officers to every high crime district. However, this is not
necessary to achieve the commissioner's goal of decreasing the total number of
crimes in city Y. Even if there were more high-crime districts than low-crime
districts in city Y, police officers could still be shifted to some (though not all)
high-crime districts, and thereby possibly reduce the total number of crimes in
city Y.
(E) CORRECT. The police commissioner's proposal would not make sense if
districts of the city from which police officers are removed experience significant
crime increases shortly after the removal of those officers. This would at least
partially, if not fully, negate the reduction in the number of crimes in the highcrime districts.
This choice establishes that, in fact, the low-crime districts do
NOT suffer from significant crime increases after the removal of some officers--
an essential assumption upon which the commissioner's proposal depends.

2. The argument concludes that rising sea levels caused by global warming will
destroy major coastal population centers and displace millions of people. Any
assumption in support of this conclusion would have to corroborate that these
events will definitively take place.
(A) CORRECT. If new technological developments in the next century allow
people to divert rising seas from the world’s cities (i.e., population centers), cities
will not be destroyed and millions of people will not be displaced. Thus, a
necessary assumption is that these technologies will not be developed.
(B) A simple awareness of the steps to reduce emissions in no way undermines
the argument’s conclusion, as this answer choice does not describe any action
being taken by individuals. Additionally, greenhouse gases are never mentioned
as the primary by-product of human activity that causes global warming, and are
therefore not sufficient to address the argument.
(C) The argument never suggests that all coastal population centers are similarly
affected; this choice is too extreme and overreaching for the argument’s
conclusion.
(D) This might be true, but it is not an assumption on which the conclusion rests.
Instead, this answer choice is simply an inference that might be drawn from the
premises.
(E) The idea that human activity is the sole cause of global warming is neither
suggested nor assumed by the argument. In addition, the wording "sole cause" is
too extreme.

a new HitItFar driver by touting its benefits, both implied or explicit. The key to
answering this question is to be able to analyze each claim to determine whether
it is implied, explicitly stated, or neither.
distance ... [by switching to the HitItFar driver]?", the advertisement implies that
the use of the club will add "power ... and distance" and, hence, will improve
one's play.
winner have recently switched to the new driver. There is nothing in the passage
to imply that any of them were using the driver at the time of their victories;
hence, this claim is neither implied, nor made explicitly, in the passage. (C) It is a
reasonable assumption that professional golfers, particularly those
skilled enough to win a major championship, are experts and know what
it by citing the recent decision of these golfers to switch to the HitItFar driver; this
provides an implicit expert endorsement for the HitItFar driver.
driver to replace his or her old driver in order to "add power and distance"; this
implies that the new driver is superior to the reader's existing driver.
(E) This claim is explicitly stated in the first sentence of the passage.

4. The researchers claim that Delta-32 prevents its carriers from contracting the
Plague. They support this claim by noting that a strikingly large percentage of
descendants of Plague survivors carry the mutation. We are asked to find an
assumption underlying the claim.
(A) The argument is specific to the relationship between Delta-32 and resistance
to the Plague. Other diseases are irrelevant.
(B) Again, the argument is specific to the relationship between Delta-32 and
resistance to the Plague. Other diseases are irrelevant.
(C) Delta-32 may have existed in its current form before the sixteenth century
and the merit of the argument would not change.
(D) The argument does not claim that Delta-32 prevents all bacteria-caused
disease.
(E) CORRECT. The researchers claim that Delta-32 prevented its carriers from
contracting the Plague on the basis of its presence in descendants of Plague
survivors. But it is theoretically possible that these descendants carry the
mutation Delta-32 because the Plague mutated the genes of their ancestors. In
order to claim that the mutation prevented the Plague, we must assume that the
Plague did not cause the mutation Delta-32.

5. The author concludes that one will only be able to determine the age of a
Brazilian ash by counting its rings if the temperature in the tree's environment
never exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit. The author bases this conclusion on the
fact that the tree loses rings when the temperature exceeds that level. However,
if the number of rings lost by a Brazilian ash at high temperatures can be
predicted, it may be possible to determine the age of a tree even if the
temperature exceeds 95 degrees. (A) The argument says nothing about precipitation.
This answer choice is out of scope since it would require a number of other assumptions
to make it relevant to the argument's conclusion.
(B) Whether other trees share this feature is irrelevant; the argument focuses
only on the Brazilian ash.
(C) The number of days of excessive heat needed to cause the tree to lose rings
is irrelevant.
(D) The thickness of the rings is irrelevant.
(E) CORRECT. The conclusion is that the rings will be a reliable measure only if
the temperature never exceeds 95 degrees. This is true only if there is no way to
predict how many rings would be lost when the temperature does exceed 95
degrees. (If it were possible to predict this, one might be able to assess the age
of a tree using its rings even if the temperature had exceeded 95 degrees.)

6. The conclusion of this argument is that the national identification system (“using
licenses for purposes not directly related to operating a motor vehicle”) is unAmerican.
The basis for this claim is that such a system would allow the
government to restrict the liberty of its people. The necessary assumption is one
that connects restrictions on liberties to the concept of “un-American” policies.
(A) The author never mentions future presidential elections, or the role of the
president in such a national identification system. Therefore, the conclusion that
the national identification system is un-American does not depend on this
assumption.
(B) Whether the government will soon, or will ever, start curtailing the activities of
dissidents is irrelevant to this argument: that the national identification system is
un-American simply because it restricts the liberties of U.S. citizens. Even if the
government does not abuse the power the national identification system
provides, the system could still be considered un-American.
(C) CORRECT. This choice connects the concept of "un-American" policies to
restrictions on liberties, essentially defining blanket restrictions on citizens as unAmerican.
(D) Whether Americans are willing to give up their right to travel freely is
irrelevant to this argument: that the national identification system is un-American
simply because it restricts the liberties of U.S. citizens. Even if Americans were willing to
give up their right to move about without identification, the system could
still be considered un-American.
(E) While the author may be inclined to agree that Americans should resist the
government regulation of their lives that the national identification system
represents, this argument does not depend on such an assumption. In fact, the
author makes a distinction between the national identification system and
“licenses for purposes…directly related to operating a motor vehicle,” so it is
possible that the author considers some government regulation reasonable.

7. The argument presents the facts of an apparent change in a magazine's cover
features since the new publisher took control. While a gossip columnist hailed the
change, newspaper editorials disagreed and concluded that the publisher
favored profit over reporting. The editorials are the opponents of the gossip
columnist; since their conclusion is about the publisher’s desires, there must be
an assumption connecting the publisher to the covers.
(A) This choice is irrelevant, as it is not connected to the conclusion. The
activities of celebrities have nothing to do with the publisher’s interests.
(B) CORRECT. Since the conclusion concerns the publisher’s desires based on
the content of the magazine covers, the editorials have to assume that the
publisher decides who is to be a cover subject. If not, there is no connection
between the covers and the publisher’s interests.
(C) This choice is the opposite of a necessary assumption. For the editorials to
conclude that the publisher prefers profits to reporting, they have to assume that
the two are mutually exclusive.
(D) “Some” means “at least one,” so this is not a powerful statement in any
direction. Furthermore, even if several such stars were running for political office,
it is not at all necessary to assume that to conclude that the publisher was more
interested in profits.
(E) This choice is not correct. While it is true that the editorials must assume
model and movie star covers are likely to sell more copies, it does not have to be
assumed that such covers will result in the sale of triple the number of copies, or
any other specific number.

8. The conclusion of the argument is that renewable sources of energy, chiefly solar
and wind, will be less risky for certain utilities than nonrenewable sources, such
as oil and gas. The basis for this claim is that the renewable sources will provide
stable, low-cost supplies of energy, whereas the prices for nonrenewable sources
will fluctuate according to availability. We are asked to find an
assumption underlying this argument. In order for this argument to be valid, it
must in fact be true that these renewable sources of energy will provide stable,
low-cost supplies.
(A) The utility companies' claim has to do with the supply risk of the new energy
sources, not with how these sources are received by the public.
(B) If no new supplies of traditional energy sources are found, then it is true that
perhaps these nonrenewable supplies will continue to fluctuate in price in a risky
manner. However, the argument does not depend upon any assumption about
the future discovery of oil and gas supplies.
(C) CORRECT. If we assume that weather patterns are consistent and
predictable, then with the stated premises, we can conclude that solar and wind
power will be less risky than oil and gas. If, on the other hand, weather patterns
are not consistent and predictable, then solar and wind power are not reliable
and thus will not provide "stable energy supplies at low cost." Thus, the
argument's conclusion directly depends on this assumption.
(D) To reach the required conclusion, it is not necessary to assume that the
conversion technology for new sources is not more expensive than the present
technology.
(E) This choice does not directly affect the argument. Whether or not energy
produced through combustion can be made less risky, the new energy sources
might still be less risky than the older sources.

9. We are given two premises based on survey results: first, vanilla is the bestselling
flavor of ice cream and, second, those who prefer chocolate usually don't
order vanilla. The author concludes that vanilla-flavored candy should sell better
than chocolate-flavored candy. The author bases this conclusion on the
assumption that it is valid to extend the survey's results beyond ice cream to
include candy.
(A) As a stand-alone, this choice makes common sense but, in the argument, it
would undermine the author's conclusion. We are asked to find an assumption
upon which the author relies, which means the correct assumption should
support the author's conclusion.
(B) This choice is either irrelevant at best (the survey does not address children
specifically) or would undermine the author's conclusion, at worst. We are asked
to find an assumption upon which the author relies, which means the correct
assumption should support the author's conclusion. (C) Preferences for flavors
neither vanilla nor chocolate are outside of the scope of this argument.
(D) This choice addresses only ice cream preferences; it does not provide any
information to tie ice cream preferences to candy preferences.
(E) CORRECT. This assumption supports the author's conclusion by tying ice
cream preferences directly to candy preferences.

10. The conclusion of the argument is that the media are wrong in saying that the
economy is entering a phase of growth and prosperity. The basis for that claim is
that the number of people filing for bankruptcy has increased every month for the
last six months and that bankruptcy lawyers are busier than they have been in
years. In order for this argument to be valid, however, the author has to assume
that the increase in the number of bankruptcies is a result of the state of the
economy and not the result of something unrelated.
(A) This statement does not have to be true for the claim that the media are
wrong about the economy to hold. Even if unemployment rates are useful
indicators of growth and prosperity, the media could still be wrong about the
economy (e.g., if there are other indicators that show problems in other areas).
(B) This does not have to be true for the conclusion to hold. Productivity could
be a good measure of economic growth, but the media could still be wrong about
the economy (e.g., if there are other indicators that show problems in other
areas).
(C) CORRECT. This has to be true for the conclusion to hold. If legislation has
recently been passed that makes it easier to obtain bankruptcy, then the
evidence cited would be less relevant. The increased number of bankruptcies
could have been the result of the easier process rather than of a poor economy.
(D) This does not have to be true for the conclusion to hold. An increase in the
number of bankruptcy lawyers would not explain the increase in the number of
bankruptcy filings.
(E) This does not have to be true for the claim that the media are wrong about
the economy to hold. Even if the media did not often misrepresent the current
state of economic affairs, the argument that the media are wrong might still hold.

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03 Oct 2012, 21:14
thanks, for explaining Q10
Re: GMATCLUB VERBAL ATTACK   [#permalink] 03 Oct 2012, 21:14

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