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# When an active tooth in the shark’s jaws is lost or worn down

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When an active tooth in the shark’s jaws is lost or worn down [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2013, 04:25
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The below SC question is from Gmat prep software , could you please clarify my below doubt.

When an active tooth in the shark’s jaws is lost or worn down, many spare teeth lie in seemingly limitless reserve, each of which are ready to slide into the appropriate position.

A. When an active tooth in the shark’s jaws is lost or worn down, many spare teeth lie in seemingly limitless reserve, each of which are ready to slide into the appropriate position.
B. Whenever an active tooth is lost or worn down, many spare teeth lie in seemingly limitless reserve in the shark’s jaws, which are each ready to slide into the appropriate position.
C. Many spare teeth lie in seemingly limitless reserve in the shark’s jaws, each one of which are ready to slide into the appropriate position when an active tooth is lost or worn down.
D. The many spare teeth lying in seemingly limitless reserve in the shark’s jaws, each one of which is ready to slide into the appropriate position whenever an active tooth is lost or worn down.
E. In the shark’s jaws, many spare teeth lie in seemingly limitless reserve, each one ready to slide into the appropriate position whenever an active tooth is lost or worn down.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Ans: E.
My analysis:
In the shark's jaw: this is a prepositional phrase modifying " lie"
many spare teeth lie in seemingly limitless reserve: this is a Independent clause with subject :teeth an verb: lie.
each one ready to slide into the appropriate position whenever an active tooth is lost or worn down.: this is a modifier modifying teeth.

But my doubt is what kind of modifier is this"each one ready to slide into the appropriate position whenever an active tooth is lost or worn down.T
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by JarvisR on 09 Aug 2016, 03:35, edited 1 time in total.
Updated topic name and moved comments under spoiler.
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Re: When an active tooth in the shark’s jaws is lost or worn down [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2013, 13:17
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My analysis:
In the shark's jaw: this is a prepositional phrase modifying " lie"
many spare teeth lie in seemingly limitless reserve: this is a Independent clause with subject :teeth an verb: lie.
each one ready to slide into the appropriate position whenever an active tooth is lost or worn down.: this is a modifier modifying teeth.

But my doubt is what kind of modifier is this"each one ready to slide into the appropriate position whenever an active tooth is lost or worn down.T

That's an excellent question, and I'm happy to help.

Here's the OA, version (E):
In the shark’s jaws, many spare teeth lie in seemingly limitless reserve, each one ready to slide into the appropriate position whenever an active tooth is lost or worn down.
You are perfectly correct about the independent clause --- "many spare teeth lie in seemingly limitless reserve" is the one independent clause in this sentence, with "many spare teeth" as the main subject of the sentence and "lie" as the main verb.

After the comma, the phrase starting with "each one .." is a sophisticated structure known as an absolute phrase. See
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/absolute-p ... -the-gmat/
An absolute phrase has the structure
[noun]+[noun modifier]
and it is a somewhat independent structure, sometimes modifying the entire independent clause, and sometimes just a part. Here, we have an indefinite pronoun, "each one", in the place of the noun, referring to the teeth. An absolute phrase is a phrase --- no bonafide verb, so it never can be clause on its own.

This is a structure you would find in sophisticated reading. How much do you read? Reading challenging English material is the best way to develop an ear for sophisticated grammatical structure such as this. Here are some suggestions for reading:

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Mike McGarry
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Re: When an active tooth in the shark’s jaws is lost or worn down [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2013, 12:12
Hi Jose,

Thanks for posting your query here.

Great job with the analysis! Since 'one' is a pronoun, and pronouns function as nouns, the modifier "each one ready to slide into the appropriate position whenever an active tooth is lost or worn down" functions as a noun phrase modifying "teeth". So we have a noun + noun modifier here.

I hope this helps!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: When an active tooth in the shark’s jaws is lost or worn down [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2014, 12:43
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: When an active tooth in the shark’s jaws is lost or worn down [#permalink]

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27 May 2016, 13:39
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
Re: When an active tooth in the shark’s jaws is lost or worn down   [#permalink] 27 May 2016, 13:39
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