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Government official: Clearly, censorship exists if we, as

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Government official: Clearly, censorship exists if we, as [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2013, 23:08
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A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  45% (medium)

Question Stats:

55% (02:53) correct 45% (02:33) wrong based on 83 sessions
20. Government official: Clearly, censorship exists if we, as citizens, are not allowed to communicate what we are ready to communicate at our own expense or if other citizens are not permitted access to our communications at their own expense. Public unwillingness to provide funds for certain kinds of scientific, scholarly, or artistic activities cannot, therefore, be described as censorship.
The flawed reasoning in the government official’s argument is most parallel to that in which one of the following?

(A) All actions that cause unnecessary harm to others are unjust: so if a just action causes harm to others, that action must be necessary.
(B) Since there is more to good manners than simply using polite forms of address, it is not possible to say on first meeting a person whether or not that person has good manners.
(C) Acrophobia, usually defined as a morbid fear of heights, can also mean a morbid fear of sharp objects. Since both fears have the same origin.
(D) There is no doubt that a deed is heroic if the doer risks his or her own life to benefit another person. Thus an action is not heroic if only thing it endangers is the reputation of the doer.
(E) Perception of beauty in an object is determined by past and present influences on the mind of the beholder. Thus on object can be called beautiful, since not everyone will see beauty in it.

Can someone pour in with explanation as mentioned below:

A-> B NOT B -> NOT A

here Public willing (not allowed) => Censorship (Premise)
Public unwilling => Not Censorship.

How above cause effect can be structured inA/B form as explained above

Plz pour in thoughts

source:LSAT
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Government official: Clearly, censorship exists if we, as [#permalink] New post 11 Sep 2013, 02:48
First, sorry about my English, I am still learning.

I am not sure if my reasoning is 100% correct, but I got the right answer, so, it might help.

Clearly, censorship exists if we, as citizens, are not allowed to communicate what we are ready to communicate at our own expense or if other citizens are not permitted access to our communications at their own expense.

For me, the most parallel argument not only should have the "A-> B NOT B -> NOT A", but also should have "something that depends on the person".
The (D) is the only option with this kind of stuff.

(D) There is no doubt that a deed is heroic if the doer risks his or her own life to benefit another person. Thus an action is not heroic if only thing it endangers is the reputation of the doer.


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Re: Government official: Clearly, censorship exists if we, as [#permalink] New post 11 Sep 2013, 22:17
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Hi TGC

I’m happy to help.

GENERAL THEORIES

This is a parallel reasoning question, but it's more like a flaw of reasoning question, so it’s important to find the fallacy first. If you can’t realize the flaw of reasoning in the stimulus, it’s difficult to pick a correct choice.

This question uses a fallacy, namely, Denying the Antecedent.
The form is:
If A, then B
Conclusion: If Not A, then Not B.

Note: The logic is WRONG.

For example:
If I have 800 GMAT score, I will be accepted at Harvard Business School.
Conclusion: If I don’t have 800 GMAT score, I will NOT be accepted at HBS.
It’s wrong. Even though 800 is exceptional score. If one has 800 GMAT, HBS will accept him. However, 800 GMAT is not the ONLY condition to decide an applicant is accepted or not.

APPLY TO THE QUESTION:

If [as citizens, are not allowed to communicate –OR-- other citizens are not permitted access to our communications], then censorship exists.
Conclusion: if public is unwillingness to provide funds for XYZ, then censorship does NOT exist.

KEY word is “unwillingness” which means people are ALLOWED to provide funds, but not willing to do so. I will paraphrase the conclusion like:
Paraphrased version of conclusion: If public is ALLOWED to provide funds for XYZ, then censorship does NOT exist.

This is an alternate version of “Denying the Antecedent”.
Form used in this question is:
If A is negative (not allowed to...), then B positive (censorship exists).
Conclusion: If A is positive (is allowed to....), then B negative (censorship does not exist).
.
This is a wrong logic.

Only D has a parallel reasoning.

Let examine D:

(D) There is no doubt that a deed is heroic if the doer risks his or her own life to benefit another person. Thus an action is not heroic if only thing it endangers is the reputation of the doer.

The form of D is:
If doer risks his or her own life, then a deed is heroic.
Thus, if doer does not risk his or her own life (the doer only risks his or her reputation), then an action is not a heroic.

Clearly, the conclusion in D has a similar fallacy as we discussed above. Hence, D is the answer.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Government official: Clearly, censorship exists if we, as   [#permalink] 11 Sep 2013, 22:17
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