I’m happy to help.GENERAL THEORIES
This is a parallel reasoning question, but it's more like a flaw of reasoning
question, so it’s important to find the fallacy first. If you can’t realize the flaw of reasoning in the stimulus, it’s difficult to pick a correct choice.
This question uses a fallacy, namely, Denying the Antecedent.The form is:If A, then B
Conclusion: If Not A, then Not B.Note: The logic is WRONG. For example:
If I have 800 GMAT score, I will be accepted at Harvard Business School.
Conclusion: If I don’t have 800 GMAT score, I will NOT be accepted at HBS.
It’s wrong. Even though 800 is exceptional score. If one has 800 GMAT, HBS will accept him. However, 800 GMAT is not the ONLY condition to decide an applicant is accepted or not.APPLY TO THE QUESTION:If
[as citizens, are not allowed to communicate –OR-- other citizens are not permitted access to our communications], then
censorship exists.Conclusion: if
public is unwillingness to provide funds for XYZ, then
censorship does NOT exist.KEY word is “unwillingness”
which means people are ALLOWED
to provide funds, but not willing
to do so. I will paraphrase the conclusion like:
Paraphrased version of conclusion: If public is ALLOWED
to provide funds for XYZ, then censorship does NOT exist
This is an alternate version of “Denying the Antecedent”.
Form used in this question is:
If A is negative (not allowed to...), then B positive (censorship exists).
Conclusion: If A is positive (is allowed to....), then B negative (censorship does not exist).
This is a wrong
Only D has a parallel reasoning. Let examine D:
(D) There is no doubt that a deed is heroic if the doer risks his or her own life to benefit another person. Thus an action is not heroic if only thing it endangers is the reputation of the doer. The form of D is:
If doer risks
his or her own life, then a deed is heroic
Thus, if doer does not risk
his or her own life (the doer only risks his or her reputation), then an action is not a heroic
Clearly, the conclusion in D has a similar fallacy as we discussed above. Hence, D is the answer.
Hope it helps.
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