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Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics

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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2013, 09:30
Expert's post
souvik101990 wrote:
1. In the United States, of the people who moved from one state to another when they retired, the percentage who retired to Florida has decreased by three percentage points over the past ten years. Since many local businesses in Florida cater to retirees, this decline is likely to have a noticeably negative economic effect on these businesses.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?


A. Florida attracts more people who move from one state to another when they retire than does any other state.
B. The number of people who move out of Florida to accept employment in other states has increased over the past ten years.
C. There are far more local businesses in Florida that cater to tourists than there are local businesses that cater to retirees.
D. The total number of people who retired and moved to another state for their retirement has increased significantly over the past ten years.
E. The number of people who left Florida when they retired to live in another state was greater last year than it was ten years ago.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA D



Answer should be D

Premise :- of the people who retire and move to another state, percentage of people shifted to Florida decreased by 3 percentage points.

Conclusion :- Businesses that cater to retirees are likely to affect by this decline.

Analysis :- Since the businesses will only get affected when actual number of customers decline. That means when actual number of retirees that shifts to Florida decline. If this doesn't happen then conclusion will not hold true.
Suppose in 2001 in the US 100 people moved after retirement. of which 50% i.e. 50 shifted to Florida and rest 50 shifted to other states. While in 2010, total of 200 people moved after retirement of which 47% i.e. 94 shifted to Florida and 53% i.e. 106 shifted in other states.
In this scenario actual number of retirees shifted to Florida increased and hence businesses that caters retirees will not affect at all.
So if number of people who moves after retirement in the whole nation increase then conclusion will be undermined.

A) Even though Florida attracts more people than does any other state, if the number of people who move after retirement stays same over the period of 10 years then actual number of people moves to Florida after retirement will decline. So this choice does not undermine the conclusion. INCORRECT

B) Stimulus talks about businesses that Cater demands of Retirees and not about those serves general population. INCORRECT

C) Same as above. Stimulus is concerned only about businesses that serves retirees. INCORRECT

D) This choice says Actual Number of people who retired and moved in other states increased SUBSTANTIALLY. This is in accordance with our analysis. CORRECT

E) This choice strengthens the conclusion. It says actual number of retirees living in Florida has declined in 10 years. INCORRECT
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2013, 09:41
Expert's post
souvik101990 wrote:
2. The violent crime rate (number of violent crimes per 1,000 residents) in Meadowbrook is 60 percent higher now than it was four years ago. The corresponding increase for Parkdale is only 10 percent. These figures support the conclusion that residents of Meadowbrook are more likely to become victims of violent crime than are residents of Parkdale.
The argument above is flawed because it fails to take into account


A. changes in the population density of both Parkdale and Meadowbrook over the past four years
B. how the rate of population growth in Meadowbrook over the past four years compares to the corresponding rate for Parkdale
C. the ratio of violent to nonviolent crimes committed during the past four years in Meadowbrook and Parkdale
D. the violent crime rates in Meadowbrook and Parkdale four years ago
E. how Meadowbrook’s expenditures for crime prevention over the past four years compare to Parkdale’s expenditures
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA D



Answer Should be D

Analysis :-
Suppose 4 years back the rate of violent crimes in Meadowbrook was 10 per 1000. After 4 years there was 60% increase in the rate of violent crimes in Meadowbrook. So it must be 16 per 1000.

Let the initial rate of violent crimes in Parkdale be 100 per 1000. In 4 years there was 10% increase. So now it must be 110 per 1000.

In this case residents of Parkdale are still likely to become victims of violent crimes and not the residents of Meadowbrook.

Argument is flawed because it falsely assumes that Initial rate of violent crimes in Meadowbrook was equal to or greater than that in Parkdale.


A) Since the RATE of violent crimes has increased, In the event of population increase or its density increase, number of crimes is sure to increase subsequently. This indeed strengthen the argument and does not reveals the flaw in the argument. INCORRECT

B) Different rates of population growth would not have any effect on Probability of becoming a victim of violent crime as long as rates of crime are also increasing. INCORRECT

C) Non-violent crimes are not part of the discussion. INCORRECT

D) It is necessary to know the initial crime rates before drawing the given conclusion. CORRECT

E) Out of Scope. INCORRECT
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2013, 09:48
Expert's post
souvik101990 wrote:
3. In Kravonia, the average salary for jobs requiring a college degree has always been higher than the average salary for jobs that do not require a degree. Over the last few years, the number of Kravonians enrolled in college has been growing steadily. Therefore, the number of Kravonians entering the job market who have at least the qualification of a college degree will eventuallty be significantly higher than it has been over the last few years.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?


A. Kravonians with more than one college degree earn little more, on average, than do Kravonians with only one college degree
B. The average number of years Kravonian college students remain enrolled before completing a degree has been increasing over the past several of years.
C. Despite the increase in the number of Kravonians attending college, the percentage of the population attending college is lower in Kravonia than in most other countries.
D. In recent years, empoyers have been requiring college degrees for workers in jobs that were previously performed successfully by Kravonians who did not have college degrees.
E. For many years, employers in Kravonia hva ehad difficulty finding enough college graduates to fill the high-paying jobs that were available.3
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA B



Answer Should be B


The First sentence "the average salary for jobs………..do not require a degree" is not directly related to the conclusion. We have to only consider the remaining part.

Premise :- over the last few years, number of kravonions enrolled in college has been growing steadily.

Conclusion :- Therefore more people having atleast college degrees will enter in the job market in future.

Weakening scenario :- Though more people entered the college, if they do not finish their degrees then they will not be able to enter in the job market and in that case conclusion will not hold true

A) We do not have evidance to assume that people are turning towards college degrees because of higher salaries offered to degree holders. INCORRECT

B) This choice states that number of people finishing their degrees will not increase as average number of years remain enrolled for degrees has been growing. This is similar to our pre-thinking. CORRECT

C) Percentage of population attending college of Kravonia is compared with that of other countries. Out of Scope. INCORRECT

D) This choice strengthens the conclusion. It says that requirement of college degree holders has been increasing. INCORRECT

E) This choice says that since years there was shortge of college graduates. This partially explains why there is high requirements of college graduates in the market. But it does not comment on whether Number of college graduates are increasing. INCORRECT.
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2013, 11:01
Expert's post
souvik101990 wrote:
4. Because postage rates are rising, Home Decorator magazine plans to maximize its profits by reducing by one half the number of issues it publishes each year. The quality of articles, the number of articles published per year, and the subscription price will not change. Market research shows that neither subscribers nor advertisers will be lost if the magazine's plan is instituted.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest evidence that the magazine's profits are likely to decline if the plan is instituted?


A. With the new postage rates, a typical issue under the proposed plan would cost about one-third more to mail than a typical current issue would.
B. The majority of the magazine's subscribers are less concerned about a possible reduction in the quantity of the magazine's articles than about a possible loss of the current high quality of its articles.
C. Many of the magazine's long-time subscribers would continue their subscriptions even if the subscription price were increased.
D. Most of the advertisers that purchase advertising space in the magazine will continue to spend the same amount on advertising per issue as they have in the past.
E. Production costs for the magazine are expected to remain stable.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA D



Answer should be D

Premise 1 :- Home Decorator magazine plans to reduce number of issues by 50% to maximize its profits to cope up with rising Postage rates. While doing so magazine would not reduce the number of articles it publishes every year and will not compromise with the quality of articles. Subscription Price will also remain same.

Premise 2 :- Neither subscribers nor advertisers will be lost if the plan is instituted.

Assumption 1 :- Advertisers will succeed in reaching their targeted customers to the extent they were expecting with the reduced issues.

Assumption 2 :- Magazines current revenue (Subscription + Advertising Amount) will not decrease with the reduction in issues.

Assumption 3 :- The money saved from reduction in the number of issues published will be greater than that spent on additional postage charge, if any, for new larger sized magazine.

Analysis :- To Prove that magazine's profit will decline we need to attack any one of the 2nd and 3rd assumption. If Magazine loses some of its revenue (if this is the case, then loss will certainly come from Advertising fee since it has already stated in the premise that subscription will be unaffected) or its new issue costs substantially more to post than current issue then the magazine's profits will decline.

A) Let the current No of issue be 100 and current postage rate be 10 per issue. Then Current Postage Expenditure would be 1000. According to this choice new postage rate will be 13.33 per issue. Number of issues will be 50. Hence Total Postage expenditure would be around 650. Magazine still can increase its profit atleast by 350. So this choice is INCORRECT

B) As per this choice, majority of subscribers are concerned about possible loss of current high quality of magazine's articles and It has already cleared in the premise 1 that no compromise will be done with the quality of articles. Hence INCORRECT

C) This choice supports the Assumption 1 that subscription will not be affected. INCORRECT

D) If the advertisers continue to pay with the same rate per issue then the revenue from advertising will be halved, decreasing the overall revenue of the magazine, because now number of issues published will be fewer. This choice proves that the profits would decline. CORRECT

E) Not sufficient. INCORRECT
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 18 Jul 2013, 00:25
Expert's post
souvik101990 wrote:
5. Corporate Officer: Last year was an unusually poor one for our chemical division, which has traditionally contributed about 60 percent of the corporation’s profits. It is therefore encouraging that there is the following evidence that the pharmaceutical division is growing stronger: it contributed 45 percent of the corporation’s profits, up from 20 percent the previous year.
On the basis of the facts stated, which of the following is the best critique of the evidence presented above?


(A) The increase in the pharmaceutical division’s contribution to corporation profits could have resulted largely from the introduction of single, important new product.
(B) In multidivisional corporations that have pharmaceutical divisions, over half of the corporation’s profits usually come from the pharmaceuticals.
(C) The percentage of the corporation’s profits attributable to the pharmaceutical division could have increased even if that division’s performance had not improved.
(D) The information cited does not make it possible to determine whether the 20 percent share of profits cited was itself an improvement over the year before.
(E) The information cited does not make it possible to compare the performance of the chemical and pharmaceutical divisions in of the percent of total profits attributable to each.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA C



Answer should be C

Analysis :- Chemical division's share in the corporation's profit came down from 60 %. At the same type Pharmaceutical division's share increased from 20% to 45%. Before drawing the conclusion that pharmaceutical division is growing stronger, we need to consider two scenarios.

Scenario 1) Pharmaceutical division's profit increased substantially to the extent that it contributed 45 % of the corporation's profit. - Conclusion Valid

Scenario 2) Chemical and other divisions except for pharmaceutical performed so poorly that despite no increase in profit Pharmaceutical division's share in total profit became 45% - without confirming that this scenario has not occurred we can not conclude that pharma division is growing.

A) This choice confirms that pharma division was growing - because of its new product. INCORRECT

B) This choice compares pharma division of subject corporation with pharma divisions of other companies. But that's not the true comparison. While concluding the growth of pharma division, corporate officer has compared pharma division with other divisions of the same corporation and has said that pharma division has performed better than other divisions. INCORRECT

C) Share of pharma division in total profits could have increased without any improvement. This clearly indicates that, as we discussed above, Scenario 2 must has occurred and increased share of pharma division is due to the poor performance of other divisions. CORRECT

D) Since corporate officer has cleared that pharma division did better in the last year. So its performance in the year before last year would not form the basis for the critique. INCORRECT

E) The comparison is between pharma division and all other divisions of the corporation and not between two specific divisions. INCORRECT
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 20 Jul 2013, 21:09
Apparently souvik needs more such cloudy questions for every run to keep the thrill of it :D

first leaves a bad taste in the mouth from being incomplete and C survives a mostly incomplete set of choices


1. C


souvik101990 wrote:
Hello all.
This is the first of the collection of topic wise questions I am going to make here. This is a topic that hovers in the region where the quant part of the GMAT and the verbal part of the GMAT collide.
So try to solve the questions under 2.5 minutes and I will post the OAs in 2-3 days! You are free to google though!
Hopefully this set will help you clarify the doubts in this type of questions and leave no room for errors on the test day.

1. In the United States, of the people who moved from one state to another when they retired, the percentage who retired to Florida has decreased by three percentage points over the past ten years. Since many local businesses in Florida cater to retirees, this decline is likely to have a noticeably negative economic effect on these businesses.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?


A. Florida attracts more people who move from one state to another when they retire than does any other state.
B. The number of people who move out of Florida to accept employment in other states has increased over the past ten years.
C. There are far more local businesses in Florida that cater to tourists than there are local businesses that cater to retirees.
D. The total number of people who retired and moved to another state for their retirement has increased significantly over the past ten years.
E. The number of people who left Florida when they retired to live in another state was greater last year than it was ten years ago.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA D


Last edited by Narenn on 21 Jul 2013, 04:50, edited 1 time in total.
Removed unnecessary part
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 20 Jul 2013, 21:12
2 D, the most obvious as A-C do not relate to the argument/number being evaluated
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 20 Jul 2013, 21:30
Quote:
5. Corporate Officer: Last year was an unusually poor one for our chemical division, which has traditionally contributed about 60 percent of the corporation’s profits. It is therefore encouraging that there is the following evidence that the pharmaceutical division is growing stronger: it contributed 45 percent of the corporation’s profits, up from 20 percent the previous year.
On the basis of the facts stated, which of the following is the best critique of the evidence presented above?

(A) The increase in the pharmaceutical division’s contribution to corporation profits could have resulted largely from the introduction of single, important new product.
(B) In multidivisional corporations that have pharmaceutical divisions, over half of the corporation’s profits usually come from the pharmaceuticals.
(C) The percentage of the corporation’s profits attributable to the pharmaceutical division could have increased even if that division’s performance had not improved.
(D) The information cited does not make it possible to determine whether the 20 percent share of profits cited was itself an improvement over the year before.
(E) The information cited does not make it possible to compare the performance of the chemical and pharmaceutical divisions in of the percent of total profits attributable to each.
[Reveal] Spoiler:

6. Political Advertisement: Mayor Delmont’s critics complain about the jobs that were lost in the city under Delmont’s leadership. Yet the fact is that not only were more jobs created than were eliminated, but the average pay for these new jobs has been higher than the average pay for jobs citywide every year since Delmont took office. So there can be no question that throughout Delmont’s tenure the average paycheck in this city has been getting steadily bigger.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument in the advertisement?

A. The average pay for jobs created in the city during the past three years was higher than the average pay for jobs created in the city earlier in Mayor Delmont’s tenure.
B. Average pay in the city was at a ten-year low when Mayor Delmont took office.
C. Some of the jobs created in the city during Mayor Delmont’s tenure have in the meantime been eliminated again.
D. The average pay for jobs eliminated in the city during Mayor Delmont’s tenure has been roughly equal every year to the average pay for jobs citywide.
E. The average pay for jobs in the city is currently higher than it is for jobs in the suburbs surrounding the city.
[Reveal] Spoiler:

7. Denoma, a major consumer-electronics maker, had a sizeable decline in sales revenue for its most recent fiscal year. This result appears surprising, because electronics retailers report that although their overall sales were considerably lower than in the previous year, their sales revenue from Denoma models actually grew, largely thanks to some innovative and popular models that Denoma introduced.
Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the apparently surprising result?

A. Because of the need to educate the public about its new models’ capabilities, Denoma’s advertising spending was higher than normal over the period.
B. For the period at issue, Denoma’s major competitors reported declines in revenue that were, in percentage terms, greater than Denoma’s.
C. A significant proportion of Denoma’s revenue comes from making components for other consumer-electronics manufacturers.
D. Unlike some of its major competitors, Denoma has no lines of business outside consumer electronics to provide revenue when retail sales of consumer electronics are weak.
E. During the period, consumer-electronics retailers sold remaining units of Denoma’s superseded models at prices that were deeply discounted from those models’ original prices.


5 C a silly one because percentages of divisional profits will add up to 100 and here we see the second division contributing higher percent based on poor profits of other
6. D as each lost job salary has to be deducted from the average calculation of remining jobs and if it was average then the added higher pay jobs would increase the average salary for the citizens
7. C, unfortuntely it cannot be E because though it would explain it more closer to the requirement of the argument that dealers reported variant daata, fact is the argument already stated that directly revenues were being compared which dealers said ahd increased for Denoma
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 20 Jul 2013, 21:35
8. C again A,B and D are easily eliminated but E is iagonally oposite in impact to the argument but is not provable without more data in this case as C is already poducing the same positive variation (improvement) in reclamation costs (going down)
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 20 Jul 2013, 21:40
Quote:
9. For the first time in history, more televisions than people can be found in American households. According to recent research, the average household has 2.55 residents and contains 2.73 televisions. However, by employing such costly manufacturing processes as plasma technology and flat screens, televisions are becoming too expensive for the typical consumer. As a result, the average number of residents per household will again surpass the number of televisions.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the argument above?

A. House parties at which numerous individuals gather to view popular television shows on one television set have increased three hundred percent during the past year.
B. More than one million legal immigrants enter the United States each year.
C. New devices such as video-enabled personal digital assistants and music players are increasingly purchased for use as a primary source of information and entertainment.
D. As new technologies become more commonplace, manufacturing and retail costs normally decline.
E. As a result of technological advances, new televisions are increasingly enabled with some features, such as Internet browsing, traditionally associated with other household devices.


A. could be from any small base but keeper as it impacts argument directly
B. indirect argument, needs substantiation
C. cost of new devices not known and whether they reduce the installs of TV
D. weakens argument as it would increase number of new tv sold
E. irrelevant to argument

Still left with A

9. A
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 20 Jul 2013, 21:42
9. corection still left with A and C, i chose A an 'error' I keep finding more logical as Kaplan 800 repeats this kind of erroneous incomplete set with two incomplete choices and solution based on environment outside the argument
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 22 Jul 2013, 19:17
I was able to solve the 9th one ( not in the first attempt :) ) by POE. The answer could be reduced to 'C' but I am not convinced the reasoning of 'C'.

The argument is about the impact on Number of residents Vs Number of TV sets
A. House parties, at which numerous individuals gather to view popular television shows on one television set, have increased three hundred percent during the past year.
If household parties have increased, then more than anything this should weaken the argument as the people throwing the party would tend to buy additional TV's instead of cramping everyone at one place

B. More than one million legal immigrants enter the United States each year.
No impact on the number

C. New devices such as video-enabled personal digital assistants and music players are increasingly
purchased for use as a primary source of information and entertainment.
By POE, only this option remains, Nevertheless, let’s see how it impacts the number
The topic of entertainment is not given in the passage. This sentence implies that People will start buying PDA and Music players instead of TV’s.
Here's the problem: Passage says, people will stop buy TV due to advanced technology which will make it costly, The Option C says that people have started buying PDA's or Music players for entertainment and hence Number of TV's in a house will drop. The topic of entertainment seems off the argument.

Can someone please help me in reasoning out this Option

D. As new technologies become more commonplace, manufacturing and retail costs normally decline.
Weakens the argument. This will enable people to buy more television sets

E. As a result of technological advances, new televisions are increasingly enabled with some features, such as Internet browsing, traditionally associated with other household devices.
Weakens the argument. This will enable people to buy more television sets
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 22 Jul 2013, 20:56
Hi All,

Need a help on Problem 6th, Mayor Delmont

The option B says "Average pay in the city was at a ten-year low when Mayor Delmont took office."
The conclusion says that "throughout Delmont’s tenure the average paycheck in this city has been getting steadily bigger. "

So can't we say that the average pay check before Delmont was lower and that it started to increase when he took office, so in effect this strengthens the argument.

I found it difficult to justify Between 'D' and 'B'. Please explain the difference
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Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics [#permalink] New post 26 Sep 2013, 13:50
Narenn wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
3. In Kravonia, the average salary for jobs requiring a college degree has always been higher than the average salary for jobs that do not require a degree. Over the last few years, the number of Kravonians enrolled in college has been growing steadily. Therefore, the number of Kravonians entering the job market who have at least the qualification of a college degree will eventuallty be significantly higher than it has been over the last few years.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?


A. Kravonians with more than one college degree earn little more, on average, than do Kravonians with only one college degree
B. The average number of years Kravonian college students remain enrolled before completing a degree has been increasing over the past several of years.
C. Despite the increase in the number of Kravonians attending college, the percentage of the population attending college is lower in Kravonia than in most other countries.
D. In recent years, empoyers have been requiring college degrees for workers in jobs that were previously performed successfully by Kravonians who did not have college degrees.
E. For many years, employers in Kravonia hva ehad difficulty finding enough college graduates to fill the high-paying jobs that were available.3
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA B



Answer Should be B


The First sentence "the average salary for jobs………..do not require a degree" is not directly related to the conclusion. We have to only consider the remaining part.

Premise :- over the last few years, number of kravonions enrolled in college has been growing steadily.

Conclusion :- Therefore more people having atleast college degrees will enter in the job market in future.

Weakening scenario :- Though more people entered the college, if they do not finish their degrees then they will not be able to enter in the job market and in that case conclusion will not hold true

A) We do not have evidance to assume that people are turning towards college degrees because of higher salaries offered to degree holders. INCORRECT

B) This choice states that number of people finishing their degrees will not increase as average number of years remain enrolled for degrees has been growing. This is similar to our pre-thinking. CORRECT

C) Percentage of population attending college of Kravonia is compared with that of other countries. Out of Scope. INCORRECT

D) This choice strengthens the conclusion. It says that requirement of college degree holders has been increasing. INCORRECT

E) This choice says that since years there was shortge of college graduates. This partially explains why there is high requirements of college graduates in the market. But it does not comment on whether Number of college graduates are increasing. INCORRECT.


I took the GMAT Prep test yesterday and this question was on it. However, the answer does not seem right, actually none do. The question states "Eventually" - "Therefore, the number of Kravonians entering the job market who have at least the qualification of a college degree will eventuallty be significantly higher than it has been over the last few years" So even if they stay in college longer, they will eventually come out with a degree and enter the workforce. Your thoughts on this please.

Thanks
Re: Hard CR questions involving proportion/numbers/statistics   [#permalink] 26 Sep 2013, 13:50
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