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Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from â€œa fair cross section of the community.â€
is it approriate to use present perfect (choice A)
Really depends on which timeframe we choose to focus on. I think that "nearly a hundred years after 1880" means that the process is over, so we should use past simple. Present perfect is used to express a process, which continues in / upto the present, but we are not talking about the present, are we?
If we still haven't managed to enforce the "principle that ...", present perfect is the obvious choice here. It sounds to me like we finished the job about 25 years ago, so I'm sticking with (B)
gmatdena, by the way you have asked your question, I can tell that I am wrong...