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# Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,

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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  23 Sep 2004, 15:48
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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
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Re: Heavy commitment [#permalink]  05 Sep 2011, 01:19

(A) Heavy commitment by an executive to a course
of action, especially if it has worked well in the
past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient
trouble or misinterpret them when they do
appear.
Ambiguous pronouns
(B) An executive who is heavily committed to a
course of action, especially one that worked well
in the past, makes missing signs of incipient
trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they
do appear.

(C) An executive who is heavily committed to a
course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret
signs of incipient trouble when they do appear,
especially if it has worked well in the past.

wrong modifier as if the troble worked well in past

(D) Executives’ being heavily committed to a course
of action, especially if it has worked well in the
past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient
trouble or misinterpreting
them when they do
appear.

parallel construction error
(E) Being heavily committed to a course of action,
especially one that has worked well in the past,
is likely to make an executive miss signs of
incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they
do appear
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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  08 Feb 2012, 13:37
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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Can someone break down each Answer Choice for me and Break this sentence down?

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Re: Heavy Commitment. Whats going on with this one?? [#permalink]  09 Feb 2012, 00:22
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My POE went like this.

A. ???
B. Changes the meaning to executive as the main subject. WRONG
C. Changes the meaning to executive as the main subject. WRONG
D. “makes them”? Executive’s is a possessive form. Executive itself is singular. WRONG
E. ????

So, between A and E:

1) X makes it likely to miss signs vs. is likely to make an etc.
2) what does IT refer to the original sentence? Ask the question makes what?

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Re: Heavy Commitment. Whats going on with this one?? [#permalink]  09 Feb 2012, 00:33
Quote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

An executive commits him/herself to a course of action, (mostly because) he has had good experience in the past, but this course of action makes it likely to miss signs.

"Especially if..." is a sub-sentence of "Heavy commitment by..." and this commitment tends to result in effects

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. Passive, not clear what makes it likely to miss...
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. Awkward
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past. change of meaning, executive is likely to miss...especially if it has worked well
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. Executives´ should be avoided, plural, Verb-Agreement
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. Correct, sentence modifies correct
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Re: Heavy Commitment. Whats going on with this one?? [#permalink]  09 Feb 2012, 04:06
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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
first step is to understand the logical meaning of the sentence, so let's break the sentence
Heavy commitment by an executive to something(a course of action) will make him likely to miss signs of trouble.....thus the state of being heavily committed is causing the individual to miss signs of.... when they do reappear
gmatpunjabi wrote:
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

especially if it has worked well in the past....IT here is an ambiguous pronoun, it mat refer to heavy commitment or executive or course of action

makes it likely....it has ambiguous antecedent, it may refer to executive( being closer than Heavy commitment) or Heavy commitment

gmatpunjabi wrote:
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

awkward( rather qualifies for the example of awkward sentences...

gmatpunjabi wrote:
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

It's not the executive is likely to miss but it's the heavy commitment which is making him miss( that's what the original sentence meant to say)

gmatpunjabi wrote:
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

them has no antecedent as Executives’ is in possessive form...poorly written

gmatpunjabi wrote:
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
correct
also one thing to note that being is not always incorrect...

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gmat prep [#permalink]  21 Feb 2012, 09:20
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

narrowed between C and E. finally choose C because of "being" in option E. can somebody explain C in detail.particularly pronoun reference
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Re: gmat prep [#permalink]  21 Feb 2012, 11:20
Can you explain pronoun reference in option C for " it". according to mgmat sc antecedant to a pronoun must act as a noun in that sentence. I read in other forums that antecedant for pronoun " it" can refer either to a "course of action" or " inicipent trouble". but both of them acted as objects of preposition. Experts please provide detail explanation and suggest me any other material for pronoun reference
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Re: Heavy Commitment. Whats going on with this one?? [#permalink]  11 Mar 2012, 08:14
I have chosen E for this question:

A. This sentence is in passive voice - usually incorrect. Also, the pronoun "it" is ambiguous and leads to confusion because we're not sure what "it" refers to.

B. In this case, the subject should be "heavy commitment" because it is the commitment that makes the executive prone to missing or misinterpreting signs. Instead, this sentence seems to suggest that the executive makes missing or misinterpreting signs likely. This sentence just seems a bit confusing to me.

C. The modifier "especially..." is misplaced. Since it is placed at the end of the sentence, I'm not too sure what it modifies. The pronoun "it" is also ambiguous in this case.

D. Executives' being is already an awkward way to start the sentence. Furthermore, the use of the pronoun "them" is not possessive, so it doesn't correctly refer back to executives. Also, parallelism is broken here because of "to miss... or misinterpreting." This should actually be "to miss...or misinterpret."

E. Although "being" is usually incorrect on the GMAT, it seems to be correct in this case. It clearly demonstrates the meaning of the sentence by saying that the commitment from the executives has led to to miss or misinterpret signs of trouble.
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Re: Heavy Commitment. Whats going on with this one?? [#permalink]  26 Mar 2012, 21:47
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Explanation:
The original sentence means that:
“Heavy commitment by an executive makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. “
X makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

This sentence is ambiguous because it does not make it clear who is missing and misinterpreting the incipient trouble. Is it the “Heavy commitment” or “an executive”?

E makes it clear:

Being heavily committed to a course of action is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Here it is clear that it is the executive who will miss or misinterpret the incipient trouble. Also, “especially one that has worked well in the past” has perfectly modified the “course of action”.

Also, “Being heavily committed to a course of action” is a simple gerund. So finally the sentence is as follows:
X is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
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Re: Heavy Commitment. Whats going on with this one?? [#permalink]  13 Aug 2012, 11:51
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gmatpunjabi wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Can someone break down each Answer Choice for me and Break this sentence down?

A) here the pronoun is pointing towards "course of action". This is incorrect because "course of action" cannot miss signs.( try to understand the meaning). The pronoun should be such that it points towards the executive.
B) subject is->" an executive"
Problem with this option is parallelism on both sides of parallel marker "or". One one side there is a complex gerund phrase (missing signs of incipient trouble) and on the other side there is simple gerund phrase (misinterpreting). The complex gerund phrase can never be parallel to simple gerund phrase.
Always remember.
C) "it" has no antecedent
D) the possesiveness implies that something of executives is heavily committed to a course of action and this something of executive misses signs. Also, the two either sides of the parallel marked "or" are not parallel.
E) IMO there isn't any issue with this option.

Don't ever think that being sentences are always wrong. As mentioned earlier, this wrong concept can murder us on D day.
Good luck.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  29 Aug 2012, 13:30
Clearing the traffic snarl that unnecessarly prevents from getting to the core : The reduced stem of each option takes an appearance as below :

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action......makes it likely to miss signs... : IT problem --------- Elimination zone

B. An executive..... makes missing signs.....likely when they do appear : ( Does it makes any sense ? ) ---- Elimination zone

C. An executive .... is likely to miss signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, (especially if it has worked well in the past): the terminal modifier in brackets is wrongly placed,, in actual it should modify the course of action and should be in its vicinity ------ Elimination zone.

D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, makes them........ : Executives'- Them, SV disagreement = Elimination zone

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action..... is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble......when they do appear : Perfect

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  26 Sep 2012, 04:22
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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it (refers to??) likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.distorts the original meaning
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past(misplaced modifier-should modify "course of action").
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. (same problem as option A + passive)
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  26 Sep 2012, 05:45
This is how I went about it ...hope it helps

A . original sentence which is grammatically incorrect
B. An executive who ......., makes missing signs - discontinuity in subject
C..... miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past - we are not talking of trouble having worked in the past .wrong
D. Executives’ .... makes them .... - original sentence refers to a 'single' executive hence wrong
E. Correct
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  06 Oct 2012, 10:56
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

The third part is awkward , what makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble ?? Is it the past ??

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

B does not remove this ambiguity ..

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

C says "especially if it has worked well in the past" , the signs of trouble ??? therefore it is as confusing and awkward as the earlier 2...

D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

Makes them likely to miss signs... makes who likely ?? the course of action ? or the executives ?? confusing and reflects poorly on construction ..

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

The first part talks of a course of action, the second one refers to that very course of action ... the third part claims that the course of action that has worked well in the past is likely to make an executive miss signs of trouble bla bla bla .. All the three are in order , and very little (if any ) room for confusion remains..

If we divide this passage (E) into 3 parts

Part one talks about a course of action ...Part two of that very course of action having worked on the past..Part three continues to talk about that very course of action and what negatives could arise by staying on that path .. Therefore everything is in order as it should be in a properly constructed sentence ... (E)

My 2 cents ..
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  19 Nov 2012, 00:59
In option A, it is said to be ambiguous but its not clear why..........it said refer back to closest noun which is course of action.
As per the intended meaning "especially if it has worked well in the past", what has worked well in the past, its the course of action, than how is it ambigous.
Coming to second it in the option 'makes it likely to miss signs" now here i have a doubt, when i ask the question who misses the signs, answer should be "executives" but as per the rule it refers 'course of action".
Hence i think "it" is ambiguous.

pls help..............
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  11 Feb 2013, 16:14
could you please explain hoe the modifier when they do appear is misplaced in the choice b??
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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  23 Mar 2013, 12:26
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Finding this question difficult for me.Need every options explanation
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  23 Mar 2013, 21:22
mun23 wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Finding this question difficult for me.Need every options explanation

Here's my take on this:
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. - Incorrect It has no clear antecedent. It can refer to either 'Heavy commitment' or to a 'course of action'.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. - IncorrectThe last clause in the sentence incorrectly modifies An executive erroneously implying that the executive makes it more likely to miss signs
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.. - Incorrect Unclear in meaning, the last clause should have been just after 'a course of action'.
This would have been the correct form-
An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear.
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.- IncorrectThe apostrophe(') after Executive ruins the cake here here . This incorrect sentence seems to imply Something of Executives is heavily committed(which makes no sense) and 'them' now has no clear antecedent.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. - Correct No problems here, which debunks the theory that BEING is automatically wrong on GMAT SC
IMO - E

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  25 Mar 2013, 03:49
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AS
POE and lets see if we can "50/50" this

Easy eliminations
A-although you shouldn't really look at pronoun ambiguity as one of the first things (it shoul be one of the last in my experience) for me pronoun ambiguity is really blatant especially after 'it' is reused multiple times with multiple singular nouns that could take 'its' place. Also the clause ‘makes it likely to miss signs of incipient’ implies that an action is something sentient (which it isn't) makes it (the action) unlikely to see ‘trouble and misintepret’. The executive should be doing this. A person sees, a dog sees, actions definitely do NOT see and they don't miss seeing something either. So original sentence is wrong in meaning and grammar

B-makes signs likely (opposite of meaning) also ‘likely’ is modifying a noun ‘missing’. Noun modifiers, unlike verb modifiers should be closer to what they are modifying (‘missing’)

D- ‘executives’ being heavily committed’ is a noun…’makes them likely’. Commitment dosn't make anything likely or unlikely, an executive/his actions do. Wrong

Now C vs E:

C- What is that final hanging modifier modifying. What is the especially modifying? It is an adverbial modifier, modifying 'something'= the entire clause before it. This means that the final 'especially' clause incorrectly implies the missing signs and intepretations have 'worked well in the past'

E nothing wrong gramatically, a little wordy, but doesn't have any meaning or modifier errors

Hoped it helped

Key takeaways: Look at the meaning of the sentence. What is the pronoun and demonstrative in a sentence (that, which, it) referring firstly in meaning and then in grammar. What are modifiers such as 'likely' 'especially' modifying, and what type of modifiers are they (since this dictates how close they should be to the modified). Always start big and go small. Look at the meaning of the sentence first THEN work out kinks and ambiguities with the grammar

Kudos me up. My first explanation on OG
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]  25 Mar 2013, 14:08
Expert's post
You can see a video explanation here: http://www.gmatpill.com/gmat-practice-t ... stion/2177

Note that usage of "who" in B and C is OK - the issue lies more in the structure of the remaining sentence.

(B) says that "an executive" makes "missing signs of incipient trouble" - which doesn't make sense.

With (C) - the phrase

"especially if it has worked well in the past."

We don't know what "it" refers to here. If anything - "it" should "they" - but even so the meaning of what follows doesn't make sense with the first half of (C).
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,   [#permalink] 25 Mar 2013, 14:08

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