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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many

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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink] New post 06 Mar 2012, 22:57
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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.

A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

I am not getting difference between "including the following :" and "including :"
already including with colon is there so why is the use of following?

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Re: why including the following with colon(:)? (SC) [#permalink] New post 07 Mar 2012, 01:23
Before colon , you need a main clause. That's the reason.
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Re: why including the following with colon(:)? (SC) [#permalink] New post 25 Mar 2012, 19:22
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If you use "including" which is a verb, it should have an object after it...including what? WIth a colon, you can't just end it with a verb...the phrase on the left side of the colon would be incomplete. "Including the following" works better because it wraps up the phrase. Then on the right side of the colon, you can list out the item list.
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Re: why including the following with colon(:)? (SC)   [#permalink] 25 Mar 2012, 19:22
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