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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many

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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink] New post 06 Nov 2012, 17:53
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A
B
C
D
E

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  55% (medium)

Question Stats:

29% (02:07) correct 70% (01:08) wrong based on 107 sessions
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.

A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
A) This sentence is correct as is because all of the items in the list are parallel form. Each of the items is a noun that names a harmful effect of land erosion. The construction of the list is also correct. The noun following, which immediately precedes the list, correctly renames the items in the series.

B) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list. The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

C) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list.

D) The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

E) The items in the series are not in a parallel form. With the exception of certain fish populations rising and certain fish populations falling, which are absolute phrases, all of the items in the series are nouns. The absolutes also make the sentence longer and wordier than necessary.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink] New post 21 Jan 2013, 09:56
just from picking C and seeing it is incorrect I am assuming that "including the following" is correct because we are dealing with a list of items?
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink] New post 21 Jan 2013, 11:06
Everything parallel, no other mistakes possible -> A is correct
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink] New post 10 Sep 2013, 11:36
kingb wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.

A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
A) This sentence is correct as is because all of the items in the list are parallel form. Each of the items is a noun that names a harmful effect of land erosion. The construction of the list is also correct. The noun following, which immediately precedes the list, correctly renames the items in the series.

B) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list. The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

C) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list.

D) The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

E) The items in the series are not in a parallel form. With the exception of certain fish populations rising and certain fish populations falling, which are absolute phrases, all of the items in the series are nouns. The absolutes also make the sentence longer and wordier than necessary.

Down to (a) and (c)..is "including the following" required instead of "including"? is it because we are mentioning a list? Experts please help..
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink] New post 10 Sep 2013, 17:10
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akankshasoneja wrote:
kingb wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.

A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
A) This sentence is correct as is because all of the items in the list are parallel form. Each of the items is a noun that names a harmful effect of land erosion. The construction of the list is also correct. The noun following, which immediately precedes the list, correctly renames the items in the series.

B) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list. The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

C) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list.

D) The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

E) The items in the series are not in a parallel form. With the exception of certain fish populations rising and certain fish populations falling, which are absolute phrases, all of the items in the series are nouns. The absolutes also make the sentence longer and wordier than necessary.

Down to (a) and (c)..is "including the following" required instead of "including"? is it because we are mentioning a list? Experts please help..


Down to the basic grammatical rule for colons. The sentence before the colon should be a complete clause. That is the reason C gets knocked off.
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink] New post 22 Jan 2014, 11:27
this is a pure case of complex gerunds and actions nouns.
introduction is wrongly used in sentences A,C, and E. Generally, introduction is used to introduce a person to another person.
Secondly, "including" shall be followed by "the following" to complete the sentence before colon.

Option D should be the right answer. "entering the ocean’s environment." should not be a problem as its noun modifier (Adj) and adjectives do not affect the parallelism.

thanks
Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many   [#permalink] 22 Jan 2014, 11:27
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