HELP!!! = Since all dogs are animals, and cats are animals, : Ask GMAT Experts
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# HELP!!! = Since all dogs are animals, and cats are animals,

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HELP!!! = Since all dogs are animals, and cats are animals, [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2013, 00:42
Since all dogs are animals, and cats are animals, then all cats are dogs.
Which of the following parallels the reasoning in the passage above?
A. All men are human beings, and children are human beings. Therefore
all men are children.
B. All children are human beings, and some men are children. Therefore
all men are human beings.
C. Some men are heavy, and some men are tall. Therefore all tall men
are heavy.
D. Some animals are dogs, and some animals are cats. Therefore all dogs
and cats are animals.
E. All cats are animals, and some animals are dogs. Therefore some
animals could be cats or dogs.

source:cliff

hi there,
it's kinda urgent guys!
I know that
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A
is the correct answer, but why C is wrong?
How can we surely take out
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C
?
look,
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C
says some men are heavy (heavy men are men = dogs are animals).
tall men are men also (tall men are men = cats are animals).
so all tall men are heavy (= so all cats are dogs).
please let me know where I'm wrong.
Thanks
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Re: HELP!!! = Since all dogs are animals, and cats are animals, [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2013, 02:31
The question says

Set Dog is a subset of Set Animal
Set Cat is a subset of Set Animal
So, Set Dog = Set Cat

Le us see what each of the answer choices say:

Choice A:
Set Men is a subset of Set Human Beings
Set Children is a subset of Set Human Beings
So, Set Men = Set Children

Choice C
Set Heavy overlaps with Set Men
Set Tall overlaps with Set Men
So, Overlap of Set Heavy & Set Men = Overlap of Set Tall and Set Men
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Re: HELP!!! = Since all dogs are animals, and cats are animals, [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2013, 06:38
MacFauz wrote:
The question says

Set Dog is a subset of Set Animal
Set Cat is a subset of Set Animal
So, Set Dog = Set Cat

Le us see what each of the answer choices say:

Choice A:
Set Men is a subset of Set Human Beings
Set Children is a subset of Set Human Beings
So, Set Men = Set Children

Choice C
Set Heavy overlaps with Set Men
Set Tall overlaps with Set Men
So, Overlap of Set Heavy & Set Men = Overlap of Set Tall and Set Men

Dear MacFauz,
but actually your response made me more confused, why in choice A we say SUBSET, and in choice C we say OVERLAP??
it says " some MEN are heavy, and some MEN are tall"
so both heavy men and tall men are subsets of heavy; we are not talking about women, so there is no overlap in this sense.
it's like saying "some animals are dogs; some animals are cats"
look at the picture below and let me know abt what you think then,
Attachments

File comment: some men are heavy + some men are tall = tall men are heavy.
dogs are animals + cats are animals = cats are dogs.

MEN.jpg [ 45.76 KiB | Viewed 1807 times ]

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Re: HELP!!! = Since all dogs are animals, and cats are animals, [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2013, 07:16
You got the first one right.. But the second one is only one of many ways the equation can be represented and actually imposes some unstated limitations. Please find below what could be a representation of choice C... Of course there could also be some tall and heavy men in which case all three circles would be overlapping.

I say "overlap" because choice C unlike choice A uses the word "some".

I don't know if this can be considered a property.. But let me call it an observation...

If one set is a subset of another set, then the two are overlapping sets.
If two sets are overlapping sets, one set need not necessarily be a subset of the other set.

I hope I was able to make my explanation clear.
Attachments

Tall And Heavy Men.jpg [ 30.43 KiB | Viewed 1797 times ]

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Re: HELP!!! = Since all dogs are animals, and cats are animals, [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2013, 19:48
omraan wrote:
Since all dogs are animals, and cats are animals, then all cats are dogs.
Which of the following parallels the reasoning in the passage above?
A. All men are human beings, and children are human beings. Therefore
all men are children.
B. All children are human beings, and some men are children. Therefore
all men are human beings.
C. Some men are heavy, and some men are tall. Therefore all tall men
are heavy.
D. Some animals are dogs, and some animals are cats. Therefore all dogs
and cats are animals.
E. All cats are animals, and some animals are dogs. Therefore some
animals could be cats or dogs.

source:cliff

hi there,
it's kinda urgent guys!
I know that
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A
is the correct answer, but why C is wrong?
How can we surely take out
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C
?
look,
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C
says some men are heavy (heavy men are men = dogs are animals).
tall men are men also (tall men are men = cats are animals).
so all tall men are heavy (= so all cats are dogs).
please let me know where I'm wrong.
Thanks

You should notice the structure of the argument.

Since all dogs are animals, and cats are animals, then all cats are dogs.
parallels

All A are B.
C are B.
So all C are A.

A. All men are human beings, and children are human beings. Therefore all men are children.
parallels

All A are B.
C are B.
So all A are C

The reasoning is flawed in the same way. Just because A and C are members of a common group B, we are saying that A and C are equivalent. Though all C are A is not the same as all A are C but the flaw is the same.

C. Some men are heavy, and some men are tall. Therefore all tall men are heavy.
parallels

Some A are B.
Some A are C.
So C which are A are B.

Here the flaw is different. Because A are members of two groups B and C, we are saying that C are B.
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Re: HELP!!! = Since all dogs are animals, and cats are animals,   [#permalink] 20 Oct 2013, 19:48
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