The answer is straightforward, but I am wondering why we can't make the assumption that maybe there are books written in french or german, and not only are there fiction and non-fiction there are also other genres.
In a certain classroom, there are 80 books, of which
24 are fiction and 23 are written in Spanish. How many
of the fiction books are written in Spanish?
(1) Of the fiction books, there are 6 more that are
not written in Spanish than are written in Spanish.
(2) Of the books written in Spanish, there are 5
more nonfiction books than fiction books.
scroll down for answer
Yes, it possible that there are books written in other languages. When we say 'not Spanish', it includes all other languages.
There are 80 books. 23 are in Spanish. How many are not in Spanish? 80 - 23 = 57 These 57 books could be in any language - English, French, German... All we know is that they are not in Spanish.
Acc to statement 1, 24 are fiction. Of these there are x books in Spanish and (x+6) books in all other languages (non Spanish). Each book will be either in Spanish or some other language (i.e. non Spanish)
so x + (x+6) = 24
Acc to statement 2, of the 23 books, y are fiction and (y + 5) are non-fiction. Each book will either be fiction or it will not be fiction (i.e. non fiction). There is nothing else possible. Non fiction means it is not fiction. Each book will either be fiction or it will not be fiction.
so y + (y+5) = 23
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