4) In lists of things, what follows #2 should be like #2. #1 is still independent.
Ex: I like to walk than running or swim - incorrect. I like to walk than running or swimming - correct (bad example yet, I hope my point is driven!!!)
In the sentence you presented about Hugo, only two things are discussed, parallelism cannot exist there.
Watch out, I think your #4 may be a misinterpretation of a rule. You definitely can have parallelism between only two things. As evidence, here's a sentence with only two things that breaks parallelism:I enjoy ice cream and to run.
Noun does not equal infinitive. This creates a problem because the sentence is set up to be logically completed by a noun: I enjoy _____. You have to be able to put both of the "endings" after the first part of the sentence.
I think you may be recalling situations like this:I like to eat ice cream and run.
+ We don't have to repeat the "to" for the 2nd infinitive, as it "distributes" (to use a math term) to both bolded words.
+ It's not a problem that "to eat" is followed by an object, but "(to) run" isn't. Maybe I only like to eat ice cream, not other foods. But I like to run in general, not just to certain places or in certain ways. If so, there's a legitimate reason for the words that follow the verbs to differ. The only requirement is that the first part of the parallel structure matches.
I think there is parallelism here -- there is no word like creativer or something goofy. It has top be more creative!
hard .. harder... hardest
creative .. more creative .. most creative
Nice! It's parallelism between two comparatives.
Some comparatives can be phrased either way (e.g. funnier = more funny). So for the record, I think either of these would pass the parallelism test:
(1) He is taller and funnier than his brother.
(2) He is taller and more funny than his brother.
(1) would probably be slightly prefered as it is a stricter "match" (both -er comparatives), and has fewer words.
Emily Sledge | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | St. Louis
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