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# His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land,

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His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2003, 10:28
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His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

[Reveal] Spoiler:
It's either B or E. Is it due to idioms( in which vs. when) or since the age is in the past; it is unlikely that the great ice sheets existed in areas now. I know diction is important on GMAT. In ( now) temperate areas , does now function as an adjective?

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2010, 08:57
IMO B.

His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas >>> NOW and Currently show Redundancy. So, A is out.

(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas [Concise, What are now is correct usage. Correct]

(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate ["where there were" indicates past while "now temperate" indicates present areas. Mismatch and sentence fragmentation occurs here. Incorrect]

(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas [Current and Temperate >>> both are adjectives (an adj cant modify another adj) which are modifying area. Incorrect]

(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate [does this sound correct intended meaning. It is actually awkward and fragments sentenceIncorrect]
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2010, 10:50
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Some thoughts:

I was reading an article titled "MUSICAL GENIUS-EVOLUTION AND ORIGINS OF A CONCEPT" by Edward E Lowinsky. The article started with the following sentence:
"WE ARE living in an age in which musical and technical developments suggest the possibility that mathematical formulas and computer machines or "chance" may take over essential areas of musical creativity."

[size=200]When age is used to mean "time period" such as an era, which is used to refer. ON the basis of this rule, we can rule out C, D, and E. We are between A and B.

Past perfect:

We use past perfect when there were two actions in the past. One of them happened before another one. The previous past action is in the past perfect tense, and the later one is in the past simple.

=> Here, in the given sentence, there is only one verb, existed. So, the use of past perfect is awkward and illogical.

Clearly answer of this sentence is B.

[/size]
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2010, 10:57
The options C, D, and E can also be eliminated on the basis of other errors in them.

His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
=> Now and currently convey the same meaning, so the use of them in the same sentence is redundant.
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
=> the use of where is not correct. Where has been used here restrictively.
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
=> Temperate is an adjective. It must be modified by and adverb, currently, not by an adjective , current.
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate
=> "temperate areas" is preferable to "areas that are temperate".
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2010, 06:02
when is used for "point of time"
in which is used for "age or period of time"

had is necessary, if there were two different events happened at two different times..
But here,.. only proposal happened.. one event
experts.. correct me if i m wrong
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2010, 06:32
+1 B

'When' can be used to modify a noun event or time, such as period, age, 1987, or decade. In these circumstances, we can also use 'In Which' instead of 'When'.

Here one event occurred in past, so 'simple past' is enough.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2010, 07:08
I have seen this question somewhere (I don't remember if it was OG or MGMAT tests):-
According to Official Explanation there:-
1. In which and when can be used interchangeably in this case.
2. Now and currently when used together add redundancy.
4. "Had" is not required as only single instance of past tense is present.

However I am not sure about point 1; usage of in which / when.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2010, 09:25
IMO B.

In this sentence 'age' refers to period and therefore 'IN WHICH' seems correct. So, C, D and E are eliminated.

Option A - uses 'now currently' which is redundant.
So the correct option is B.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2010, 20:42
70. His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2010, 01:47
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Baten80 wrote:
70. His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

The answer is B,because of two reasons: the use of "in which" and the use of "simple past tense".
We require simple past tense here instead of past perfect because the use of past perfect is not necessary here. We use past perfect to emphasisze the sequence of actions in the past. In this case, it is already presumed that great ice sheets existed before the current temperate areas. So we do not need past perfect to emphasize its occurence as it is already well known. Use perfect tenses only when necessary as GMAT prefers simplicity.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2011, 06:19
chrischrischris wrote:
I think B. I couldn't actually read any of the others.

Edit: I ruled out D because of "had existed".

can you please post a better explanation to ruled out D.
i choose D because of "had existed".

this sentence is in past perfect and had existed is correct.

i am with D.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2011, 09:07
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

'had' represents past perfect . past perfect is not required here.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2011, 21:39
I went for B here are the reasons:

B)correct
C,D,E usage of when is wrong since its a concept that is being talked about not the age itself.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2011, 22:00
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

My qusn - The proposal was made in past (1837) about an event (ice age) that occurred (existed) earlier than 1837. So is the "had existed" still invalid?

Lets say someone gives the definition of ICE AGE -
An age in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas.

OR Louis Agassiz is alive and he is making his proposal today -
Agassiz has proposed the concept of an age in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas.

So the bottomline is 2 events in past needs a past perfect unless I am missing something.

Can Any Guru help?

Thanks
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2011, 09:48
A - wrong tense, redundancy
B - correct tense
C - correct tense, awkward
D - wrong tense. current should be currently
E - correct tense, wrong place of now
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2011, 22:28
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priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Strike 1 - 'an age in which...' is correct. To check, rephrase --> 'great ice sheets existed in the [ice] age'. Eliminate C, D, and E.
Strike 2 - Eliminate A

RULE
When to use 'had existed' (i.e. past perfect):
i. there must be two events
ii. both events are in the past
iii. use 'had existed' with the earlier of the two past events.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2011, 19:29
A,D - Out . Use of past perfect had is not required.

C changes the meaning of sentence

B & E - E looks better to me. "what" in B sounds strange.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2011, 07:18
Quote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Interesting question. since age, I narrowed down to (A) and (B) "in which" as the possible answers. My instinct was to first choose (A). But, then the problem with option (A) is "currently", easy to miss.

(B) has "in which" and no issues with "now temperate".

Thanks, good question.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 14:14
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in what are now temperate areas
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in what are now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Why is Past Perfect Not Required in this Question?

Also why is Answer D wrong?

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2012, 15:46
There are two events:
- existence of the ice sheets (in the past)
- existence of temperate areas (in the present)
So, past perfect is not necessary.

Maybe, you think that the simple past of the verb "lead" indicates that we need past perfect, but we should use past perfect only when the events are related or there is a sequence of events.
Yes, it is a little hard to understand it. But notice that the verb "to lead" is not in the same sequence of events in which "the existence of ice sheets" is.

Hope it helps.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2012, 02:05
IMO B
It is denoting a period and hence when is not required here as it denotes a particular time.Considering this C,D and E are out. A is out as both now and currently are making redundancy.In effect B is left out and it is perfect too.
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