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# His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land,

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His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2003, 10:28
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His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

[Reveal] Spoiler:
It's either B or E. Is it due to idioms( in which vs. when) or since the age is in the past; it is unlikely that the great ice sheets existed in areas now. I know diction is important on GMAT. In ( now) temperate areas , does now function as an adjective?

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2008, 17:28
It is a clear B
using when implies that we are referring to some time period but we are referring to a theory hence in which is better. In A now curently is redundant. CDE also have other problems such as using "where there were areas now temperate" "had existed" " areas now that are temperate"
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2008, 19:14
hibloom wrote:
It is a clear B
using when implies that we are referring to some time period but we are referring to a theory hence in which is better. In A now curently is redundant. CDE also have other problems such as using "where there were areas now temperate" "had existed" " areas now that are temperate"

OA is B
when Vs in which is clear
but can you shed some light on usage of had existed here ?

Led X to propose that Z had existed in what are now A
Led represents past tense why not had existed valid
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2008, 08:45
Always makes me confused...

His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2009, 10:03
age refers to time period, hence when should be used. A,B are out. I chose D by POE
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas Hold
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2009, 07:25
botirvoy wrote:
B.
1. I dont think "age" is "when - it is "which"
2. Comparison is between "now" and "then"(in disguise) - so, no need for past perfect.
3. In general, we use past perfect only when doing otherwise leads to ambiguities.

priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Looking at every one choosing D, I was surprised. But now I have company.

Can some one tell me what are the two past events in the chronological order, if you think it's D. IMO, there are no two such events

The only past tense word I see is existed.

Hence B
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2009, 10:47
His Studies of ice-polished rocks in his alpine homeland, far outside the range of present day glaciers, led Louis Agasiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas

a. in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
b.in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas.
c. when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
d. when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
e. when great ice sheers existed in areas now that are temperate

Hey guys, can someone explain to me why the verb form here should be simple past "existed" rather than the past perfect "had existed".

Thanks.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2010, 07:14
I'm not an expert but I believe "had" is appropriate when demonstrating that one past event occurred before another. In this case, we are only talking about the past and the "temperate areas" today so the simple past is sufficient.

About "when" vs. "in which", an earlier comment demonstrated the correct usage:

I was 18 when...
It occured during an age in which...

Specific age should be "when", referring to a period of time should be "in which".
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2010, 08:27
shivganar wrote:
It is not necessary to refer to past perfect when the past occurance is obvious. When we use to 'age in which' it is obvious and we need to to use 'had' in this case.

As long as possible we must avoid perfect tense.

Sorry for the typo error. I wanted to say that 'we need not to use 'had' in this case. So B is the right answer. he use of 'in which' correctly refers to the age.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2010, 09:10
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

What can also eliminate D is the last part: current temperate areas. The original phrase correctly used the adverb currently to describe the adjective temperate. An adjective usually cannot modify another adjective, if I recall correctly (i.e. current temperate). Does anyone else agree?
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2010, 09:15
B

A/D) incorrectly uses the past perfect HAD. You only use past perfect in order to clarify a sequence of events. In this case there is nothing to suggest any confusion.

C/E) When is used to modify a specific time and THE CONCEPT being the noun is a hypotical condition/arragement/IDEA etc that uses the modifier in which. Age was not the noun I chose because it sits inside a prepositional phrase.

POE leaves us with B

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2010, 21:12
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B

No had is not needed here.

First in which is correct so pick A or B. He proposed a concept of an age in which + simple past tense to match the tense of proposed. Also, HAD existed in now CURRENTLY don't work well. It's more clear when hyou say existed in what ARE NOW temperate areas. Those areas were not temperate areas then.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2010, 12:50
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

1. We need a simple past tense. Because LED and EXISTED are not related. Remove A, D.
2. in which should be used for Age (long time period). So, remove E,C.
3. B look awkward but best answer should not necessarily sound good all the time. lol
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2010, 08:57
IMO B.

His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas >>> NOW and Currently show Redundancy. So, A is out.

(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas [Concise, What are now is correct usage. Correct]

(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate ["where there were" indicates past while "now temperate" indicates present areas. Mismatch and sentence fragmentation occurs here. Incorrect]

(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas [Current and Temperate >>> both are adjectives (an adj cant modify another adj) which are modifying area. Incorrect]

(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate [does this sound correct intended meaning. It is actually awkward and fragments sentenceIncorrect]
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2010, 10:50
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Some thoughts:

I was reading an article titled "MUSICAL GENIUS-EVOLUTION AND ORIGINS OF A CONCEPT" by Edward E Lowinsky. The article started with the following sentence:
"WE ARE living in an age in which musical and technical developments suggest the possibility that mathematical formulas and computer machines or "chance" may take over essential areas of musical creativity."

[size=200]When age is used to mean "time period" such as an era, which is used to refer. ON the basis of this rule, we can rule out C, D, and E. We are between A and B.

Past perfect:

We use past perfect when there were two actions in the past. One of them happened before another one. The previous past action is in the past perfect tense, and the later one is in the past simple.

=> Here, in the given sentence, there is only one verb, existed. So, the use of past perfect is awkward and illogical.

Clearly answer of this sentence is B.

[/size]
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2010, 10:57
The options C, D, and E can also be eliminated on the basis of other errors in them.

His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
=> Now and currently convey the same meaning, so the use of them in the same sentence is redundant.
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
=> the use of where is not correct. Where has been used here restrictively.
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
=> Temperate is an adjective. It must be modified by and adverb, currently, not by an adjective , current.
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate
=> "temperate areas" is preferable to "areas that are temperate".
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2010, 06:02
when is used for "point of time"
in which is used for "age or period of time"

had is necessary, if there were two different events happened at two different times..
But here,.. only proposal happened.. one event
experts.. correct me if i m wrong
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2010, 06:32
+1 B

'When' can be used to modify a noun event or time, such as period, age, 1987, or decade. In these circumstances, we can also use 'In Which' instead of 'When'.

Here one event occurred in past, so 'simple past' is enough.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2010, 07:08
I have seen this question somewhere (I don't remember if it was OG or MGMAT tests):-
According to Official Explanation there:-
1. In which and when can be used interchangeably in this case.
2. Now and currently when used together add redundancy.
4. "Had" is not required as only single instance of past tense is present.

However I am not sure about point 1; usage of in which / when.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2010, 09:25
IMO B.

In this sentence 'age' refers to period and therefore 'IN WHICH' seems correct. So, C, D and E are eliminated.

Option A - uses 'now currently' which is redundant.
So the correct option is B.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2010, 20:42
70. His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land,   [#permalink] 13 Oct 2010, 20:42

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