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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and

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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink] New post 19 Dec 2005, 03:57
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A
B
C
D
E

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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by nakib77 on 23 Dec 2005, 11:51, edited 1 time in total.
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 [#permalink] New post 19 Dec 2005, 07:48
Nakib, can you boldface the portions please? Thanks.
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 [#permalink] New post 19 Dec 2005, 07:52
Please mark the respective phrases.
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Dec 2005, 11:52
allabout wrote:
Please mark the respective phrases.


there you go.
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Dec 2005, 12:06
E is out, because the econd bolded phrase is an counterargument

B is out, since the second is not the historians position

D the second isn't the authors overall position

"It is virtually true that the traditional view is false"

I think it is A, because virtually true means something different than an intermdiate conclusion.
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Dec 2005, 12:08
Hmmm...I hate this type of questions. Always tricky.

I would go with D. The author is criticizing the conclusion based on the new findings. He then offers his conclusion based on the new findings.
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Re: CR # Historian [#permalink] New post 23 Dec 2005, 12:28
nakib77 wrote:
Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.

B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.

C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.

E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.


My answer is C

The intermediate conclusion here is that the historian thinks that "a more cautious conclusion is called for" since it seems that Leibniz's work is not totally independent from that of Newton's.

However, in the last sentence, the historian states that Leibniz's notes referenced earlier sections of Newton's book which did not include Newton's concepts.
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 [#permalink] New post 24 Dec 2005, 10:14
any more takers......
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 [#permalink] New post 24 Dec 2005, 10:30
I would go with A.

First one supports the Historians Defence. Second one supports the opposing view.
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 [#permalink] New post 24 Dec 2005, 12:40
Definitely a tough one.

Between C & D, I will choose C.
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 [#permalink] New post 24 Dec 2005, 15:43
I will go with C.
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 [#permalink] New post 24 Dec 2005, 16:54
OA please...
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Re: CR # Historian [#permalink] New post 25 Dec 2005, 00:39
A.

Both parts are Evidence.
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 [#permalink] New post 25 Dec 2005, 06:02
Think it is C
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 [#permalink] New post 26 Dec 2005, 21:10
I go with D here.

In C, the first bold part in fact, opposes the point of view which takes a cautious stand onthe subject. The first bold part infact, reinforces the view that both their works were independent.
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 [#permalink] New post 29 Dec 2005, 13:13
its A , simple functions of the sentences.
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 [#permalink] New post 30 Dec 2005, 20:31
I would go with D. The first is clearly what the historian critizes. You can tell by "A more cautious conclusion than this is called for". The second is the evidence cited by the historian to support his own position or criticism of the earlier conclusion by others.
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 [#permalink] New post 31 Dec 2005, 20:13
E for me..
Nakib post the OA plz?
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 [#permalink] New post 31 Dec 2005, 20:20
This one was between C and D for me. I choose D over C.

Why?

In C, the choice says that the first part is used to support an intermediate conclusion that the HISTORIAN DEFENDS....the historian OPPOSES this intermediate conclusion. SO C is out.
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  [#permalink] 31 Dec 2005, 20:20
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